Symptoms of Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency

  Functions Symptoms (Bird and Mammal)
Vitamin A: Growth, alimentary tract and respiratory mucosa Ruffled feathers, inflamed eyes, bulging and watery eyes, muscle incoordination, roughened coat, cloudiness of the cornea, nasal discharge,
Vitamin B1: Carbohydrate metabolism, nerve or neuro-muscular impluse transmission Anorexia, weakness, diarrhea, lethargy, seizures and other neurological disorders, weight loss, leg weakness, ruffled feathers, impaired digestion
Vitamin B2: Functions within 2 other co-enzymes Curled toe paralysis, anorexia, loss of weight, weakness, reduced growth, rough coat, diarrhea, leg paralysis,
Vitamin B6: Protein metabolism anorexia, retarded growth, muscular incoordination, convulsions and neurological disorders, abnormal excitability
Vitamin B12: Carbohydrate metabolism Anorexia, loss of weight, neurological and locomotion disorders,
Biotin: coenzyme Broken flight feathers, paralysis of hind quarters, fur discoloration, hair loss, degnerative changes in the hair follicles, thickened and scaly skin, conjunctivitis, eye infections, dermatitis
Choline: Nerve functioning, Extreme weakness, labored breathing with 6-8 days, enlarged hocks, slipped tendons, reduced growth of leg bones, awkward gait, growth retardations, muscular weakness
Folic Acid: Transfers single carbon units in molecular transformations Lack of growth and emaciation, low WBC (anemia), depigmentation of feathers, poor feathering, profuse salivation
Niacin: Functions in 2 coenzymes Reduced growth, enlarged hocks, poor feathering, anorexia, drooling, dermatitis, tongue discoloration
Pantothenic Acid: Necessary for fat, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism Anorexia, skin lesions, crusty scabs around beak and eyes, emaciation, weakness, reduced growth, leg disorders, poor feathering,
Vitamin D: Calcium absorption and metabolism Rickets, nervous disorders, enlarged joints, wobbly gait, low appetite, stiff legs
See Metabolic Bone Disease
Vitamin E: Antioxidant, muscle integrity Nutritional muscular distrophy, sudden death (weakened heart)
Vitamin K: Necessary for blood clotting Hemorrhaging
Calcium: Skeletal growth Paralysis, retarded growth
See Metabolic Bone Disease
Chromium: Synergism with insulin to promote glucose uptake and metabolism Reduced rate of growth, hyperglycemia
Cobalt: Synthesis of Vitamin B12 Anemia, wasting away, loss of appetite
Copper: Necessary for hemoglobin and melanin formation, blood proteins, enzyme systems Anemai, diarrhea, loss of appetite, nervous disorders, loss of hair color, reduced hair growth, bone deformities,
Iron: Formation of hemoglobin Anemia, listlessness, weight loss
Manganese: Bone formation, energy metabolism, electrolyte balance Nervous disorders, loss of equilibrium, bone malformations, slipped tendon
Phosphorus: Energy metabolism, skeletal growth Lack of appetite
Potassium: Acid-base balance in intracellular fluid. Activates enzymes, heart, muscle tone Overall muscle weakness, loss of appetite, cardiac weakness and failure
Selenium: Interacts with Vitamin E to maintain tissue integrity Nutritional muscular dystrophy, labored breathing, diarrhea,
Sodium: Acid-base balance, water retention Lack of appetite
Zinc: Essential for synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins Enlarged hocks of birds, poor feathering, retarded growth, rough hair coat and hair loss, weight loss, loss of appetite, impaired wound healing, shortening of long bones, dry foot pads
References: Nutritional Diseases of Mammals, J. Wallach and G. Hoff; Keeping Livestock Healthy