Record Life Spans (years) of Amphibians and Reptiles

Longevity Records
Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Fish; James R. Carey and Debra S. Judge; Odense University Press, ISBN 87-7838-539-3

Amphibians and Reptiles

Table 3. Record Life Spans (years) of Amphibians and Reptiles

Class
Order/Family
Genus/Species/Sub-species Common Name Capt. M/F Reference
Amphibia
AmbystomatidaeAmbystoma macrodactylum krauseiEastern long-toed salamander5.1x[2]
 Ambystoma macrodactylum sigillatumSouthern long-toed salamander5.1x[2]
 Ambystoma maculatumSpotted salamander25.0x[7]
 Ambystoma opacumMarbled salamander3.5x[2]
 Ambystoma opacumMarbled salamander4.0x[8]
 Ambystoma ordinariumPuerto Hondo stream salamander2.0x[2]
 Ambystoma talpoideumMole salamander2.3x[2]
 Ambystoma texanumSmallmouth salamander5.3x[2]
 Ambystoma tigrinumTiger salamander10.3x[2]
 Ambystoma tigrinumTiger salamander25.0x[8]
 Rhyacotriton olympicus olympicusOlympic salamander2.7m[2]
AmphiumidaeAmphiuma meansTwo-toed amphium14.6x[2]
 Amphiuma meansTwo-toed amphium27.0x[7]
 Amphiuma tridactylumThree-toed amphium12.3x[2]
AtelopodidaeAtelopus varius zetekiVeragoa stubfoot toad0.8x[2]
BufonidaeBufo alvariusColorado river toad9.2x[2]
 Bufo americanusAmerican toad4.7x[2]
 Bufo americanusAmerican toad30.0x[8]
 Bufo americanusAmerican toad5.0x[10]
 Bufo blombergiColombian giant toad10.8m[2]
 Bufo boreasWestern toad6.0x[2]
 Bufo bufoCommon European toad36.0x[7]
 Bufo debilis insidiorGreen toad3.2x[2]
 Bufo luetkeniYellow toad9.9x[2]
 Bufo marinusMarine toad8.0f[2]
 Bufo mazatlanensisSinaloa toad3.8x[2]
 Bufo paracnemisEurura toad10.3x[2]
 Bufo peltacephus 12.7x[2]
 Bufo punctatusRed-spotted toad4.1m[2]
 Bufo quercicusOak toad1.9x[2]
 Bufo retiformisSonoran green toad2.9x[2]
 Bufo speciosusTexas toad3.9x[2]
 Bufo viridisEuropean green toad3.0x[2]
 Bufo woodhousei fowleriWoodhouse toad2.4x[2]
CaecilidaeDermorphis mexicanus mexicanusMexican caecilian2.1f[2]
CryptobranchidaeAndrias diavidianusChinese giant salamander4.2x[2]
 Andrias japonicusJapanese giant salamander16.8x[2]
 Andrias japonicusJapanese giant salamander55.0x[7]
 Cryptobranchus alleganiensisEastern #OOPS#bender6.0x[2]
 Cryptobranchus alleganiensisEastern #OOPS#bender25.0x[10]
DendrobatidaeDendrobates auratusGreen and black poison frog8.3x[2]
 Dendrobates pumilioStrawberry poison frog1.8x[2]
DiscoglossidaeBombina bombinaFirebelly toad5.8m[2]
 Bombina bombinaFirebelly toad20.0x[7]
 Bombina orientalisOriental firebelly toad2.3x[2]
HylidaeAgalychnis litodryasPink-sided leaf frog3.5x[2]
 Diaglena spatula 7.3x[2]
 Hyla avivocaBird-voiced treefrog2.5x[2]
 Hyla chrysoscelisGray treefrog2.5m[2]
 Hyla cinereaGreen treefrog6.2x[2]
 Hyla crepitansEmerald-eyed treefrog4.9x[2]
 Hyla femoralisPine woods treefrog2.5m[2]
 Hyla gabbi 2.3x[2]
 Hyla gratiosaBarking treefrog7.2x[2]
 Hyla microcephalaYellow treefrog2.9x[2]
 Hyla pellucensPalmar treefrog3.5x[2]
 Hyla quinquefasciata 3.5x[2]
 Hyla rosenbergiRosenberg’s treefrog3.5m[2]
 Hyla septentrionalis 12.9f[2]
 Hyla vastaHispaniola treefrog5.1m[2]
 Pachymedusa dacnicolorMexican leaf frog7.5f[2]
 Phrynohyas hebes 5.7x[2]
 Pternohyla fodiensNorthern casque-headed frog5.1x[2]
 Smilisca baudini baudiniMexican treefrog5.2x[2]
 Smilisca phaeota 3.5x[2]
 Trachycephalus jordaniJordan’s casque-headed treefrog3.5x[2]
 Triprion spatulatus reticulatusShovel-headed treefrog8.8x[2]
HynobiidaeHynobius boulengeriBoulenger’s oriental salamander5.3m[2]
LeptodactylidaeCeratophrys calcarataColombian horned frog10.8m[2]
 Ceratophrys cornutaSurinam horned frog10.3f[2]
 Ceratophrys ornataOrnate horned frog11.3f[2]
 Leptodactylus pentadactylusTungara frog15.7x[2]
 Leptodactylus pentadactylusS. American bullfrog12.0x[7]
 Physalaemus pustulosus 7.4x[2]
MicrohylidaeGastrophryne carolinensisEastern narrow-mouthed toad6.1x[2]
 Gastrophryne carolinensisEastern narrow-mouthed toad6.0x[7]
 Kaloula pulchraMalaysian narrowmouth toad6.0x[7]
 Koula pulchra 7.9x[2]
NecturidaeNecturus punctatusDwarf waterdog4.5x[2]
PelobatidaePelobates fuscusCommon Eurasian spadefoot toad11.0x[7]
 Scaphiopus couchiCouch spadefoot toad3.3x[2]
 Scaphiopus holbrooki holbrookiEastern spadefoot toad12.3x[2]
PelodryadidaeLitoria caeruleaWhite’s treefrog8.5x[2]
 Litoria caeruleaWhite’s treefrog16.0x[7]
PipidaePipa pipaSurinam toad6.8x[2]
 Xenopus laevisAfrican clawed frog8.8x[2]
 Xenopus laevisAfrican clawed frog15.0x[7]
PlethodontidaeBolitoglossa subpalmataLa Palma salamander1.9x[2]
 Desmognathus aeneusSeepage salamander4.0x[2]
 Desmognathus auriculatusSouthern dusky salamander3.8x[2]
 Desmognathus ochrophaeusMountain dusky salamander5.3x[2]
 Desmognathus quandramaculatusBlackbelly salamander10.3x[10]
 Desmognathus welteriBlack mountain salamander5.4x[2]
 Ensatina eschscholtzi croceaterYellow-blotched salamander3.3m[2]
 Ensatina eschscholtzi klauberiLarge-blotched salamander4.3x[2]
 Ensatina eschscholtzi oregonensisOregon salamander4.5x[2]
 Eurycea longicauda guttolineataThree-lined salamander5.0x[2]
 Eurycea longicauda longicaudaLong-tailed salamander4.7x[2]
 Eurycea wilderaeBlue Ridge two-lined salamander8.0x[10]
 Gyrinophilus palleucusTennessee cave salamander3.9x[2]
 Gyrinophilus porphyriticus danielsiBlue Ridge spring salamander2.9x[2]
 Gyrinophilus porphyriticus porphyriticusNorthern spring salamander4.8x[2]
 Haideotriton wallaceiGeorgia blind salamander1.7x[2]
 Hemidactylium scutatumFour-toed salamander5.5f[2]
 Phaeognathus hubrichtiRed Hills salamander5.1x[2]
 Plethodon elongatusDel Norte salamander4.5x[2]
 Plethodon glutinosusNorthern slimy salamander5.5x[2]
 Plethodon jordaniJordan’s salamander5.3x[2]
 Plethodon longicrus 5.2x[2]
 Plethodon vehiculumWestern red-backed salamander4.6x[2]
 Pseudotriton montanus diastictusMidland mud salamander5.5x[2]
 Pseudotriton ruber ruberNorthern red salamander5.5m[2]
 Pseudotriton ruber schenckiBlackchin red salamander5.4m[2]
 Pseudotriton ruber vioscaiSouthern red salamander2.5x[2]
 Typhloriton spelaeusGrotto salamander5.3x[2]
ProteidaeProteus anquinusOlm3.1m[2]
 Proteus anquinusOlm15.0x[7]
RanidaeMantella aurantiacaGolden frog3.7f[2]
 Rana adspera 8.6x[2]
 Rana catesbeianaBullfrog6.6m[2]
 Rana catesbeianaBullfrog16.0x[7]
 Rana catesbeianaBullfrog8.0x[10]
 Rana occipitalis 10.9x[2]
SalamandridaeCynops pyrrhogasterJapanese firebelly newt25.0x[7]
 Notophthalmus perstriatusStriped newt12.9m[2]
 Notophthalmus viridescensEastern or red-spotted newt15.0x[8]
 Notophthalmus viridescens viridescensEastern or red-spotted newt3.1x[2]
 Pleurodeles waltiSpanish ribbed newt10.3x[2]
 Salamandra salamandra terrestrisEuropean fire salamander6.0m[2]
 Triturus alpestrisLaureutis alpine salamander3.1x[2]
 Triturus cristatusNorthern crested newt4.0x[2]
 Triturus pyrrhogaster 4.4x[2]
 Trylototriton verrucosusCrocodile newt5.3x[2]
SirenidaeSiren intermediaEastern lesser siren6.3x[2]
 Siren lacertinaGreater siren14.8f[2]
 Siren lacertinaGreater siren25.0x[7]
TypholnectidaeTyphlonectes compressicaudaCayenne caecilian4.9x[2]
Reptilia
AcrochordidaeAcrochordus javanicusJava file snake5.8x[2]
AgamidaeAgama colonorumWest African spinous lizard1.3x[5]
 Agama hartmanniHartmann’s Sudan lizard1.2x[5]
 Agama mutabilisEgyptian changeable lizard2.8x[5]
 Agama pallidaEgyptian pale lizard1.8x[5]
 Agama savignyiSavigny’s Egyptian judge-of-the-desert2.5x[5]
 Agama stellio 2.3f[2]
 Agama stellioLevant starred lizard4.1x[5]
 Amphibolurus barbatus 9.9m[2]
 Amphibolurus nobbiNobbi2.2f[2]
 Calotes emmaEast Indian emma lizard0.7x[5]
 Calotes versicolorIndian changeable lizard1.5x[5]
 Chlamydosaurus kingiFilled dragon6.3x[2]
 Hydrosaurus amboinensis 3.5m[2]
 Leiolepis bellianaButterfly lizard5.6f[2]
 Lyriocephalus scutatusCeylonese knob-nosed lizard3.5x[5]
 Physignathus cocincinusWater dragon2.8f[2]
 Physignathus leusueriAustralian water lizard4.1x[5]
 Physignathus leusueriEastern water dragon7.5x[2]
 Physignathus leusueriEastern water dragon6.0x[7]
 Uromastix acanthinurusN. African spiny dabb lizard11.4x[5]
 Uromastix aegyptiusEgyptian dabb lizard11.4x[5]
AlligatoridaeAlligator mississippiensisAmerican alligator47.8x[2]
 Alligator mississippiensisAmerican alligator56.0x[7]
 Alligator mississippiensisAmerican alligator34.8f[5]
 Alligator sinensisChinese alligator27.1x[5]
 Alligator sinensisChinese alligator38.1m/f[2]
 Caimen crocodilusNarrow-snouted spectacled caiman21.9x[2]
 Caimen latirostrisBroad-nosed caiman22.0f[2]
 Caiman latirostrisS. American broad-snouted caiman8.3x[5]
 Caiman palpebrosusBrazilian musky caiman5.8x[5]
 Caiman scleropsAmerican rough eyed caiman3.4x[5]
 Melanosuchus nigerBlack caiman13.1m[2]
 Paleosuchus palpebrosusDwarf caiman2.4f[2]
 Paleosuchus trigonatusSmooth-fronted caiman16.3x[2]
AmphisbaenidaeAmphisbaena albaRed worm lizard13.3f[2]
 Amphisbaena albaAmerican white amphisbaena1.8x[5]
 Amphisbaena brazilianaBrazilian amphisbaena1.2x[5]
 Amphisbaena darwiniDarwin’s S. American amphisbaena0.2x[5]
 Blanus cinereusSpanish grey amphisbaena0.7x[5]
 Lepidosternon microcephalumBrazilian small-headed amphisbaena0.2x[5]
 Lepidosternon scutigerumBrazilian shield-bearing amphisbaena0.9x[5]
AnguidaeAnguis fragilisSlowworm3.0x[5]
 Anguis fragilisSlowworm8.3x[2]
 Anguis fragilisSlowworm54.0x[3] [7]
 Gerrhonotus caeruleusAmerican blue lizard2.3x[5]
 Gerrhonotus liocephus infernalisTexas alligator lizard3.5x[2]
 Gerrhonotus multicarinatusSouthern alligator lizard5.2x[2]
 Ophisaurus apodusArmored glass lizard17.0x[2]
 Ophisaurus apusPalaearctic Scheltopusik limbless lizard or glass snake10.7x[5]
 Ophisaurus koellikeriKoeliker’s glass lizard9.3x[2]
 Ophisaurus ventralisEastern glass lizard3.8x[2]
BipedidaeBipes biporusMole lizard3.3x[2]
BoidaeAcrantophisMadagascar boa8.6m[2]
 Aspidites melanocephalusBlack-headed python7.2x[2]
 Boa constrictor amaraliBoa constrictor15.6x[2]
 Boa constrictor constrictorCommon boa constrictor38.8f[2]
 Boa constrictorAmerican boa constrictor13.3x[5]
 Boa constrictor imperatorAlbino boa constrictor29.1f[2]
 Boa constrictor ortoniBoa constrictor11.9m[2]
 Boa madagascariensisMadagascar boa19.4x[5]
 Calabaria reinhardtiWest African ground-python0.5x[5]
 Candoia asperaNew Guinea viper boa5.9f[2]
 Charina bottae bottaeRubber boa11.4x[2]
 Chondropython viridisGreen tree python15.1f[2]
 Corallus annulatusAnnulated boa12.3x[2]
 Corallus caninusEmerald tree-boa15.4f[2]
 Corallus enydris cookiAmazon tree-boa12.3f[2]
 Corallus enydris enydrisAmazon tree-boa15.4x[2]
 Corallus cookiiCook’s American tree-boa3.3x[5]
 Corallus madagascariensisMadagascar tree-boa (+)11.5x[5]
 Epicrates anguliferCuban boa14.3f[2]
 Epicrates anguliferCuban pale-headed tree-boa8.6x[5]
 Epicrates cenchria cenchriaCommon rainbow boa10.3x[2]
 Epicrates cenchria crassusRainbow boa16.9f[2]
 Epicrates cenchria maurusRainbow boa27.3x[2]
 Epicrates cenchriaAmerican thick-necked tree-boa5.5x[5]
 Epicrates inornatusWest Indian yellow tree-boa14.4x[5]
 Epicrates inornatus fordiPuerto Rican boa7.5m[2]
 Epicrates striatus fosteriHaitian boa10.9f[2]
 Epicratus striatus ssp.Haitian boa22.1m[2]
 Epicratus subflavusJamaica boa9.8x[2]
 Eryx colubrinusKenya sand-boa10.4x[2]
 Eryx conicusRough-scaled sand-boa14.4f[2]
 Eryx jaculusCaucasian sand-boa18.3f[2]
 Eryx jaculusEgyptian sand-boa (+)13.5x[5]
 Eryx johniiJohn’s Indian sand-boa (+)13.0x[5]
 Eryx johniiJohn’s sand-boa19.5x[2]
 Eryx muelleriMueller’s N. African sand-boa2.5x[5]
 Eryx tataricusTartar sand-boa8.3x[2]
 Eryx thebaibusTheban sand-boa3.1x[5]
 Eunectes barbouriBarbour’s anaconda19.5f[2]
 Eunectes deschauenseeiDark-spotted anaconda8.3f[2]
 Eunectes murinusAmerican anaconda8.0x[5]
 Eunectes murinusGreen anaconda13.9x[2]
 Eunectes murinusGreen anaconda29.0x[7]
 Eunectes notaeusParaguayan anaconda3.4x[5]
 Liasis amethystinus kinghorni 13.8x[2]
 Liasis childreni 9.8x[2]
 Liasis fuscus fuscusCommon brown water python10.2x[2]
 Liasis fuscus ssp.Brown water python18.7f[2]
 Liasis mackloti macklotiMacklot’s python6.3x[2]
 Lichanura trivirgata roseofuscaCoastal rosy boa18.6x[2]
 Loxocemus bicolorMexican burrowing python32.8m[2]
 Morelia argus argus 9.3f[2]
 Morelia argus variegata 12.8m[2]
 Python curtus curtusShort-tailed python27.8f[2]
 Python molurus bivittatusAlbino or heterozygous Burmese python28.3f[2]
 Python molurus molurursIndian python34.2m[2]
 Python molurusIndian python or rock-python15.8x[5]
 Python regiusAfrican royal python8.7x[5]
 Python regiusBall python30.5m[2]
 Python reticulatusReticulate python25.3m[2]
 Python reticulatusEast Indian reticulated python21.3x[5]
 Python sebaeAfrican python27.3f[2]
 Python sebaeAfrican python18.0x[5]
 Python spilotesAustralian diamond-python4.3x[5]
 Sanzinia madagascariensisMadagascar tree-boa8.0x[2]
 Tropidophis canus curtusGreat Inagua Island dwarf boa4.0m[2]
 Tropidophis caymanensis parkeriCayman Islands dwarf boa8.7x[2]
 Ungaliophis continentalisIsthmian dwarf boa17.7x[2]
CarettochelyidaeCarettochelys insculptaPignose turtle17.3f[2]
ChamaeleonidaeChamaeleo basiliscusN. African basilisk chameleon1.8x[5]
 Chamaeleo pumilus 3.4x[5]
 Chamaeleo chamaeleonCommon chameleon1.0f[2]
 Chamaeleo jacksoniJacson’s chameleon1.0f[2]
 Chamaeleo melleriMeller’s chameleon1.0f[2]
ChelidaeBatrachemys dahli 4.9m[2]
 Batrachemys nasuta 13.5f[2]
 Chelodina longicollisCommon snakeneck turtle35.1x[2]
 Chelodina longicollisCommon snakeneck turtle37.0x[7]
 Chelodina oblongaNarrow-breasted snakeneck turtle4.4m[2]
 Chelodina longicollisAustralian long-necked terrapin7.2x[5]
 Chelus fimbriataS. American matamata terrapin6.0x[5]
 Chelus fimbriata 16.2m[2]
 Emydura latisternumAustralian broad-breasted terrapin5.8x[5]
 Hydromedusa maximilianiMaximilian’s Brazilian terrapin11.8x[5]
 Hydromedusa tectiferaS. American snakeneck turtle8.8f[2]
 Mesoclemmys gibba 6.3x[2]
 Phrynops geoffroanus hilairiGeoffrey’s sideneck turtle34.8f[2]
 Platemys platycephalaTwistneck turtle19.7f[2]
 Platemys spixiiSpix’s Brazilian terrapin8.2x[5]
CheloniidaeCaretta carettaLoggerhead turtle33.0x[7]
 Lepidochelys kempiAtlantic ridley3.6f[2]
 Hydraspis geoffroyanaGeoffroy’s Brazilian terrapin7.5x[5]
 Hydraspis hilariiSt. Hilaire’s S. American terrapin13.8x[5]
ChelydridaeChelydra serpentinaN. American alligator terrapin17.8x[5]
 Chelydra serpentina rossignoniSnapping turtle23.2x[2]
 Chelydra serpentina serpentinaCommon snapping turtle38.7x[2]
 Chelydra serpentina serpentinaCommon snapping turtle47.0x[8]
 Macroclemys temminckiiN. American snapping turtle5.3x[5]
 Macroclemys temminckiAlligator snapping turtle58.8m[2]
 Macroclemys temminckiAlligator snapping turtle59.0x[7]
CinosternidaeCinosternum cruentatumCentral American gory mud terrapin6.8x[5]
 Cinosternum leucostomumAmerican white-mouthed mud terrapin17.7x[5]
 Cinosternum odoratumN. American stink-pot mud terrapin22.6x[5]
 Cinosternum pennsylvanicumPennsylvania mud terrapin7.1x[5]
 Cinosternum scorpioidesS. American scorpion mud terrapin8.2x[5]
ColubridaeAblabophis rufulusS. African rufous snake4.3x[5]
 Acrochordus javanicusE. Indian water-elephant snake4.1x[5]
 Ahaeteulla tristis 4.3f[2]
 Alsophis portoricensisPuerto Rican pacer2.0x[2]
 Arizona elegans noctivagaGlossy snake12.2x[2]
 Arizona elegans occidentalisCalifornia glossy snake10.1m[2]
 Boaedon fuliginosus 7.0f[2]
 Boiga blandingiBlanding’s cat snake8.8f[2]
 Boiga cynodonDog-tooth cat snake9.1m[2]
 Boiga dendrophilaMangrove snake13.0x[2]
 Boiga irregularisBrown tree snake9.3m[2]
 Boiga trigonataIndian gamma snake8.2x[2]
 Boodon lineatusAfrican lineated snake3.6x[5]
 Chilomeniscus cinctusBanded sand snake4.0x[2]
 Chrysopelea ornataGolden treesnake4.3x[2]
 Clelia cleliaMussarana11.5m[2]
 Coelopeltis moilensisMoila snake0.5x[5]
 Coelopeltis monspessulanaPaearctic montpellier1.8x[5]
 Coluber corais couperiAmerican corais snake3.9x[5]
 Coluber guttatusN. American corn-snake3.3x[5]
 Coluber longissimusEuropean aesculapian snake3.9x[5]
 Coluber quatuorlineatusEuropean four-lined snake4.6x[5]
 Conophis vittatus vittatusStriped road guarder2.1x[2]
 Coronella austriacaEuropean smooth snake1.3x[5]
 Coronella getulaN. American king snake3.8x[5]
 Crotaphopeltis hotamboeiaHerald snake2.3f[2]
 Cyclagras gigas 16.8f[2]
 Dasypeltis atraAfrican egg-eating snake5.2f[2]
 Dasypeltis mediciEast African egg-eating snake4.0f[2]
 Dasypeltis scabraAfrican egg-eating snake13.6x[2]
 Dasypeltis scabraAfrican rough-keeled snake3.8x[5]
 Dendraspis viridisTropical African green treesnake3.8x[5]
 Dendrophis punctulatusAustralian punctulated treesnake3.1x[5]
 Dinodon rufozonatumRed barded snake13.7f[2]
 Dispholidus typhusBoomslang8.7m[2]
 Drymarchon corais coraisCommon indigo snake5.1x[2]
 Drymarchon corais couperiEastern indigo snake25.9x[2]
 Drymarchon corais couperiEastern indigo snake25.0x[7]
 Drymarchon corais melanurusIndigo snake9.0f[2]
 Drymarchon corais rubidusIndigo snake11.6x[2]
 Drymobius margaritiferus margaritiferusSpeckled racer4.3f[2]
 Dryophis mycterizansIndian long-snouted treesnake2.4x[5]
 Elaphe climacophoraJapanese rat snake12.0m[2]
 Elaphe flavirufaYellow-red rat snake7.8x[2]
 Elaphe guttata emoryiGreat plains rat snake21.1x[2]
 Elaphe guttata guttataCorn snake21.8x[2]
 Elaphe longissimaAesculapian rat snake3.2x[2]
 Elaphe obsoleta bairdiRat snake9.4x[2]
 Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeriTexas rat snake7.0x[2]
 Elaphe obsoleta obsoletaBlack rat snake20.1x[2]
 Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittataYellow rat snake17.1m[2]
 Elaphe obsoleta spiloidesGray rat snake13.9x[2]
 Elaphe oxycephala 5.4f[2]
 Elaphe quadrivirgataJapanese four-lined rat snake16.8f[2]
 Elaphe quatuorlineataFour-lined rat snake5.2x[2]
 Elaphe situlaEuropean leopard snake23.0x[7]
 Elaphe subocularisTrans-pecos rat snake13.8x[2]
 Elaphe taeniuraTaipan beauty snake9.7x[2]
 Elaphe triaspis intermediaWestern green rat snake9.5f[2]
 Elaphe vulpina gloydiEastern fox snake7.4f[2]
 Elaps lemniscatusS. American checkered snake10.0x[5]
 Enhydris chinensisChinese water snake4.2f[2]
 Farancia abacura reinwardtiWestern mud snake18.0f[2]
 Helicops angulatusS. American angulated snake3.0x[5]
 Herpetodryas carinatusAmerican carinated snake5.4x[5]
 Herpeton tentaculatumEast Indian tentacled snake2.9x[5]
 Heterodon nasicusN. American long-nosed snake5.6x[5]
 Heterodon nasicus kennerlyiMexican hognose snake9.2x[2]
 Heterodon nasicus nasicusPlains hognose snake8.2m[2]
 Heterodon platyrhinosEastern hognose snake4.0m[2]
 Heterodon platyrhinosN. American hognose snake3.5x[5]
 Hypsiglena torquata texanaNight snake9.3x[2]
 Lampropeltis calligaster calligasterPrairie kingsnake11.0f[2]
 Lampropeltis getulus californiaeCalifornia kingsnake14.7m[2]
 Lampropeltis getulus floridanaFlorida kingsnake12.0m[2]
 Lampropeltis getulus getulusCommon kingsnake21.4m[2]
 Lampropeltis getulus holbrookiSpeckled kingsnake14.4m[2]
 Lampropeltis getulus nigerBlack kingsnake13.4m[2]
 Lampropeltis getulus nigritusBlack desert kingsnake11.1m[2]
 Lampropeltis getulus splendidaDesert kingsnake12.8f[2]
 Lampropeltis getulus yumensis 23.3x[2]
 Lampropeltis pyromelana infrabialisUtah mountain kingsnake4.4x[2]
 Lampropeltis pyromelana pyromelanaArizona mountain kingsnake15.3f[2]
 Lampropeltis pyromelana woodiniHuachuca mountain kingsnake9.3m[2]
 Lampropeltis triangulum amauraLouisiana milk snake20.6x[2]
 Lampropeltis triangulum annulataMexican milk snake20.2x[2]
 Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoidesScarlet kingsnake13.0f[2]
 Lampropeltis triangulum syspilaRed milk snake10.0x[2]
 Lampropeltis triangulum triangulumMilk snake21.3x[2]
 Lampropeltis zonata multicinctaSierra mountain kingsnake16.3m[2]
 Lampropeltis zonata multifasciataCoast mountain kingsnake13.4x[2]
 Lampropeltis zonata parvirubraSan Bernadino mountain kingsnake11.9x[2]
 Lampropeltis zonata zonataSaint Helena mountain kingsnake21.2m[2]
 Leptodeira annulataBanded cat-eyed snake3.4x[2]
 Leptodeira annulataAmerican annulated snake4.9x[5]
 Leptodeira hotemboeiaAfrican rufescent snake4.3x[5]
 Leptophis mexicanusMexican parrot snake7.7x[2]
 Lioheterodon madagascariensisMadagascar sharp-nosed snake3.4x[5]
 Liophis anomalaStrange ground snake4.8x[2]
 Lytorhynchus diademaDiademed sand-snake0.4x[5]
 Macroprotodon cucullatusMediteranean hooded snake5.9x[5]
 Masticophis flagellum flagellumCoachwhip16.6m[2]
 Masticophis flagellum flavigularis 13.4x[2]
 Masticophis flagellum piceusRed coachwhip12.1m[2]
 Masticophis flagellum testaceusCentral coachwhip8.3x[2]
 Mehelya capensisLapi file snake10.9x[2]
 Naia bungarusAsiatic hamadryad12.6x[5]
 Naia flavaAfrican yellow cobra6.0x[5]
 Naia haieEgyptian cobra6.3x[5]
 Naia melanoleucaAfrican black and white cobra3.8x[5]
 Naia tripudiansIndian cobra (+)12.0x[5]
 Natrix fasciataN. American mocassin snake9.4x[5]
 Natrix fasciata rhombiferN. American rhombmarked snake7.6x[5]
 Natrix natrixGrass snake9.0x[4]
 Natrix natrixPalaearctic grass-snake7.4x[5]
 Natrix piscatorIndian river-snake9.0x[5]
 Natrix sauritaN. American ribbon-snake6.6x[5]
 Natrix septemvittataN. American seven-banded snake5.5x[5]
 Natrix sirtalisN. American striped snake5.8x[5]
 Natrix tessellataDice snake2.3x[2]
 Natrix tessellataPalaearctic tessellated snake2.7x[5]
 Natrix tigrina tigrina 3.1x[2]
 Natrix viperinaEuropean viperine snake9.2x[5]
 Oxybelis aeneusBrown vine snake5.0x[2]
 Petalognathus nebulatusS. American clouded snake4.3x[5]
 Peudaspis canaS. African hoary snake6.2x[5]
 Philodryas viridissimusS. American all-green treesnake4.1x[5]
 Pituophis melanoleucusN. American pine-snake4.5x[5]
 Pituophis melanoleucus affinis 15.0f[2]
 Pituophis melanoleucus annectensSan Diego gopher snake20.4m[2]
 Pituophis melanoleucus cateniferPacific gopher snake11.0x[2]
 Pituophis melanoleucus deserticolaGreat Basin gopher snake15.8f[2]
 Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucusGopher snake20.8f[2]
 Pituophis melanoleucus mugitusFlorida pine snake13.0x[2]
 Pituophis melanoleucus sayiBull snake22.4x[2]
 Pituophis sayiN. American bull snake3.0x[5]
 Psammophis elegansWest African slender snake1.9x[5]
 Psammophis schokariSchokari snake0.9x[5]
 Psammophis sibilansAfrican hissing snake10.3x[5]
 Psammophis subtaeniatusStripe-belly sand racer5.8x[2]
 Pseudaspis canaMole snake8.3m[2]
 Pseudechis porphyriacusAustralian purplish death adder5.8x[5]
 Ptyas mucosusOriental rat snake11.1m[2]
 Rhadinaea merremiiMerrem’s snake4.3x[5]
 Rhamphiophis multimaculataS. African many-spotted snake10.0x[5]
 Rhamphiophis oxyrhychusRufous beaked snake13.3m[2]
 Rhinocheilus lecontei leconteiWestern long-nosed snake18.3f[2]
 Rhinocheilus lecontei tessellatusTexas long-nosed snake16.4m[2]
 Salvadora hexalepis hexalepisWestern patch-nosed snake14.3m[2]
 Salvadora mexicanaMexican patch-nosed snake6.3x[2]
 Sepedon haemachatesS. African ring-hals snake4.6x[5]
 Spalerosophis diademaDiademed snake9.6f[2]
 Spilotes pullatusTropical rat snake13.6f[2]
 Storeria occipitomaculata occipitomaculataRed-bellied snake2.2x[2]
 Tarbophis obtususAfrican fierce-eyed snake2.4x[5]
 Telescopus semiannulatusEastern tiger snake7.6x[2]
 Thamnophis butleriButler’s garter snake2.0x[2]
 Thamnophis couchi hammondiWestern aquatic garter snake7.7x[2]
 Thamnophis cyrtopsis ocellataEastern blackneck garter snake6.0m[2]
 Thamnophis elegansMountain garter snake6.1x[2]
 Thamnophis marcianusCheckered garter snake7.2f[2]
 Thamnophis proximus proximusWestern ribbon snake3.6x[2]
 Thamnophis radix haydenWestern plains garter snake3.6m[2]
 Thamnophis sauritus sauritusEastern ribbon snake3.9x[2]
 Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalisCommon garter snake10.0x[2]
 Thrasops jacksoniJackson’s black treesnake5.8x[2]
 Tretanorhinus variabilis lewisiVariable swamp snake4.3f[2]
 Trimorphodon fasciolata 4.8x[2]
 Trimorphodon lambdaSonoran lyre snake5.3x[2]
 Trimorphodon vandenburghiCalifornia lyre snake6.0x[2]
 Uromacer oxyrhynchusPainted snake12.1m/f[2]
 Walterinnesia aegyptiaInnes Bey’s Egyptian black snake0.7x[5]
 Zamenis diademaClifford’s snake (+)13.6x[5]
 Zamenis florulentusEgyptian flowered snake9.3x[5]
 Zamenis hippocrepisEuropean horseshoe-snake6.3x[5]
 Zamenis mucosusIndian rat snake11.3x[5]
 Zamenis ravergieri nummiferPalaearctic tail-lined snake (+)13.8x[5]
 Zamenis rogersiRoger’s Egyptian snake5.7x[5]
 Zamenis ventrimaculatusWest Asian spot-bellied snake5.8x[5]
 Zamensis gemonensis asianusSyrian black snake10.3x[5]
CordylidaeCordylus giganteusGiant spinytail lizard5.3x[2]
 Cordylus giganteusGiant spinytail lizard5.0x[7]
 Cordylus polyzonusAfrican spinytail lizard9.1x[2]
 Cordylus warreniWarren’s spinytail lizard4.3x[2]
 Gerrhosaurus majorRough-scaled plated lizard11.1f[2]
 Gerrhosaurus nigrolineatus auritusBlack-lined plated lizard8.3x[2]
 Gerrhosaurus validusGiant plated lizard4.0x[2]
 Platysaurus guttatusLesser flat lizard10.3m[2]
 Platysaurus intermedius subnigerCommon flat lizard3.1f[2]
 Zonosaurs laticaudatusWestern girdled lizard8.0x[2]
CrocodylidaeCrocodylus porosusIndian estuarine crocodile8.8x[5]
 Crocodylus americanusAmerican sharp-nosed crocodile9.0x[5]
 Crocodylus cataphractusWest African long-nosed crocodile7.8x[5]
 Crocodylus niloticusNile crocodile15.0x[5]
 Crocodylus rhombiferCuban crocodile12.8x[5]
 Crocodylus tetraspisWest African broad-fronted crocodile15.0x[5]
 Crocodylus acutusAmerican crocodile32.9f[2]
 Crocodylus cataphractusAfrican slender-snouted crocodile42.4m[2]
 Crocodylus intermediusOrinoco crocodile17.3m[2]
 Crocodylus moreletiMorelet’s crocodile25.4f[2]
 Crocodylus niloticusNilotic crocodile18.4m[2]
 Crocodylus palustrisMugger or marsh crocodile28.4x[2]
 Crocodylus porosusSalt-water crocodile41.7m[2]
 Crocodylus rhombiferCuban crocodile18.3m/f[2]
 Osteolaemus tetraspisWest African dwarf crocodile42.2f[2]
 Tomistoma schlegeliFalse gavial14.3f[2]
DermatemydidaeDermatemys mawiiMawe’s American terrapin8.1x[5]
ElapidaeAcanthophis antarcticus antarcticusCommon death adder7.2m/f[2]
 Acanthophis antarcticus laevisCommon death adder6.2m[2]
 Acanthophis antarcticus pyrrhusCommon death adder3.4x[2]
 Acanthophis antarcticus rugosusCommon death adder6.2f[2]
 Aspidelaps scutatusShieldnose cobra11.1x[2]
 Bungarus caeruleusIndian krait10.5x[2]
 Bungarus fasciatusRed-headed krait11.5x[2]
 Bungarus multicinctusMany-banded krait9.4m[2]
 Dendroaspis angusticepsCommon mamba14.3f[2]
 Dendroaspis jamesoniJameson’s mamba9.3x[2]
 Dendroaspis polylepisBlack mamba10.1f[2]
 Dendroaspis viridisGreen mamba12.5x[2]
 Elapsoidea sundevalliSundevall’s garter snake8.6x[2]
 Hemachatus haemachatusRingneck spitting cobra11.8x[2]
 Micrurus affinis affinis 4.4f[2]
 Micrurus fulviusEastern coral snake6.8x[2]
 Naja hajeEgyptian cobra9.2m[2]
 Naja melanoleucaBlack-lipped cobra29.1f[2]
 Naja melanoleucaBlack-lipped cobra29.0x[7]
 Naja naja atraIndian cobra11.7x[2]
 Naja naja kaouthiaIndian cobra12.8x[2]
 Naja naja najaIndian cobra17.3m[2]
 Naja naja samarensisIndian cobra11.4x[2]
 Naja naja sputatrixIndian cobra13.5x[2]
 Naja naja ssp.Indian cobra23.9f[2]
 Naja nigricollis mossambicaBlackneck spitting cobra13.0m[2]
 Naja nigricollis ssp.Blackneck spitting cobra22.1x[2]
 Naja niveaCape cobra23.6x[2]
 Notechis scutatusMainland tiger snake14.1m[2]
 Ophiophagus hannahKing cobra17.1m[2]
 Pseudechis australisKing grown snake11.1x[2]
 Pseudechis porphyriacusRed-belly black snake5.1x[2]
EmydidaeChinemys megalocephala 7.7m[2]
 Chinemys reevesiReeve’s turtle24.3x[2]
 Clemmys guttataSpotted turtle8.3m[2]
 Clemmys guttataSpotted turtle26.0x[8]
 Clemmys guttataSpotted turtle6.1x[5]
 Clemmys bealei 27.3x[2]
 Clemmys caspica rivulata 13.3m[2]
 Clemmys insculptaWood turtle12.5x[2]
 Clemmys insculptaWood turtle60.0x[8]
 Clemmys leprosaSpanish terrapin5.1x[5]
 Clemmys muhlenbergiMuhlenberg’s turtle13.6x[2]
 Clemmys mutica 7.1f[2]
 Deirochelys reticulariaChicken turtle6.1f[2]
 Emydoidea blandingiiBlanding’s turtle12.8x[2]
 Emys blandingiiBlanding’s N. American pond tortoise3.0x[5]
 Emys orbicularisSwamp turtle or tortoise11.7m[2]
 Emys orbicularisEuropean pond tortoise27.9x[5]
 Geoclemys hamiltoniSpotted pond turtle14.3m[2]
 Graptemys barbouriBarbour’s map turtle5.8x[2]
 Graptemys geographicaCommon map turtle5.5x[2]
 Graptemys kohniMississippi map turtle19.8m[2]
 Graptemys oculiferaRinged map turtle4.7f[2]
 Graptemys pseudogeographicaFalse map turtle32.5x[2]
 Graptemys pulchraAlabama map turtle15.7x[2]
 Heiremys annandaliiYellow-headed temple turtle9.3f[2]
 Maclemys terrapinDiamondback terrapin9.3m[2]
 Notochelys platynotaMalayan flatshell turtle8.4f[2]
 Ocadia sinensisChinese stripeneck turtle12.4f[2]
 Terrapene carolina bauriFlorida box turtle22.6x[2]
 Terrapene carolina carolinaEastern box turtle26.4m[2]
 Terrapene carolina carolinaEastern box turtle75.0x[8]
 Terrapene carolina majorGulf coast box turtle21.6x[2]
 Terrapene carolina triunguisThree-toed box turtle24.3m[2]
 Terrapene coahuilaCoahuilan box turtle9.4f[2]
 Terrapene mexicana yucatana 15.4m[2]
 Terrapene nelsonSpotted box turtle11.8m[2]
GavialidaeGavialis gangeticusIndian gavial27.8f[2]
GekkonidaeColeonyx variegatusWestern banded gecko34.8m[2]
 Eublepharis maculariusLeopard gecko4.9f[2]
 Gehyra oceanicaOceanic dtella15.5m[2]
 Gekko geckoTokay gecko10.5x[2]
 Gekko verticillatusEast Indian vericillated gecko3.1x[5]
 Gonatodes albogularis fuscusYellowhead gecko13.0x[2]
 Gymnodactylus spyrurus 1.5m[2]
 Hemidactylus brookiiBrook’s gecko1.1x[5]
 Hemidactylus turcicusTurkish gecko2.4x[5]
 Hoplodactylus pacificusNew Zealand gecko1.9x[5]
 Hoplodactylus pacificusPacific sticky-toed gecko10.7x[2]
 Oedura marmorataMarbled velvet gecko2.9x[2]
 Oedura robustaRobust velvet gecko8.1x[2]
 Pachydactylus bibroniiBibron’s thick-toed gecko4.6m[2]
 Phelsuma laticaudaGolddust day gecko4.0m[2]
 Phelsuma lineataStriped day gecko3.0x[2]
 Phelsuma madagascariensisMadagascar day gecko10.0x[2]
 Phelsuma madagascariensisMadagascar gecko1.3x[5]
 Ptychozoon homalocephalumEast Indian fringed gecko1.1x[5]
 Ptyodactylus hasselquistiFan-footed gecko3.4x[5]
 Stenodactylus petriiFlinders Petrie’s gecko0.8x[5]
 Stenodactylus stenodactylusElegant gecko0.7x[5]
 Tarentola annularisEgyptian gecko8.0x[5]
 Tarentola delalandiiDelalande’s West African gecko2.4x[5]
 Tarentola mauretanicaMoorish gecko5.6x[5]
 Thecadactylus rapicaudusAmerican gecko0.9x[5]
 Tropiocolotes steudneriSteudner’s pygmy gecko1.8x[5]
 Ptyodactylus hasselquistiYellow fan-fingered gecko3.3m[2]
 Sphaerodactylus notatus notatusFlorida reef gecko1.3x[2]
 Tarentola mauritanicaCommon wall gecko4.1x[2]
 Tarentola mauritanicaCommon wall gecko7.0x[7]
 Teratoscincus microlepisSmall-scaled wonder gecko3.1x[2]
 Teratoscincus scincusCommon wonder gecko9.3m[2]
 Uroplates fimbriatusMadagascar geckoid lizard1.3x[5]
GlauconiidaeGlauconia cairiCairo earth-snake0.2x[5]
HelodermatidaeHeloderma horridum alvareziBeaded lizard27.3m[2]
 Heloderma horridum horridumBeaded lizard20.2f[2]
 Heloderma horridum ssp.Mexican beaded lizard22.8f[2]
 Heloderma suspectumArizona poisonous lizard8.3x[5]
 Heloderma suspectumGila monster20.0x[7]
 Heloderma suspectum sp.Gila monster27.8x[2]
 Heloderma suspectum suspectumReticulate gila monster16.4m[2]
IguanidaeAmblyrhynchus cristatusMarine iguana6.4m[2]
 Anolis alligatorBarbadian anolis2.0x[5]
 Anolis carolinensisCarolinan anolis1.3x[5]
 Anolis carolinensis carolinensisGreen anole7.1m[2]
 Anolis equestrisKnight anole8.3f[2]
 Anolis lineatopusJamaica anolis1.0x[5]
 Anolis luteogularisWhite-throated anole2.8m[2]
 Anolis stejnegeri stejnegeri 2.9m[2]
 Basiliscus basiliscusCommon basilisk3.3x[2]
 Basiliscus plumbifronsGreen basilisk5.1m[2]
 Basiliscus vittatusBrown basilisk5.8x[2]
 Brachylophus fasciatusDfigi banded iguana5.9m[2]
 Conolophus cristatusSmooth helmeted iguana5.2x[2]
 Conolophus pallidusSanta Fe land iguana17.1f[2]
 Conolophus subcristatusGalapagos land iguana7.3m[2]
 Conolophus subcristatusGalapagos land iguana15.0x[7]
 Ctenosaura hemilophaCape spinytail iguana9.6x[2]
 Ctenosaura pectinataMexican spinytail iguana8.2m[2]
 Ctenosaura similisBlack iguana4.8m[2]
 Cyclura cornutaRhinoceros iguana16.7m[2]
 Cyclura figginsi 8.7x[2]
 Cyclura inornata 5.6m[2]
 Cyclura macleayi caymanensis 8.7x[2]
 Cyclura macleayi lewisi 5.6m[2]
 Cyclura pinguisAnegada ground iguana3.2f[2]
 Cyclura rileyi nuchalisWhite cay ground iguana5.6m[2]
 Cyclura rileyi ssp.White cay ground iguana7.1x[2]
 Deiroptyx vermiculatus 1.9m[2]
 Dipsosaurus dorsalisDesert iguana14.6m/f[2]
 Iguana delicatissimaWest Indian iguana4.4x[2]
 Iguana delicatissimaAmerican naked-necked iguana1.0x[5]
 Iguana iguanaGreen iguana12.4f[2]
 Iguana tuberculataAmerican tuberculated iguana2.3x[5]
 Iguana tuberculata rhinolophaAmerican nose crested iguana1.4x[5]
 Leiocephus carinatusNorthern curlytail lizard10.8m[2]
 Mariguana agassiziWhite cay ground iguana5.2x[2]
 Metopoceros cornutusWest Indian black iguana4.2x[5]
 Oplurus cyclurusMerrem’s Madagascar swift9.3x[2]
 Phrynosoma douglassiShort-horned lizard1.0x[2]
 Phrynosoma orbiculareN. American horned lizard1.1x[5]
 Saauromus obesus tumidusArizona chuckwalla5.5x[2]
 Sceloporus cyanogenys 6.7x[2]
 Sceloporus woodiFlorida scrub lizard1.7m[2]
 Tropidurus hispidusBrazilian taraguira lizard1.6x[5]
 Uma notata notataColorado desert fringe-toed lizard8.1x[2]
KinosternidaeKinosternon bauriiStriped mud turtle7.6f[2]
 Kinosternon cruentatus 6.9m[2]
 Kinosternon flavescensYellow mud turtle10.3x[2]
 Kinosternon herreraiHerrera’s mud turtle19.5m[2]
 Kinosternon scorpidoidesScorpian mud turtle14.0x[2]
 Kinosternon sonoriensisSonoran mud turtle27.8x[2]
 Kinosternon subrubrumCommon mud turtle40.0x[4]
 Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepisMud turtle18.3x[2]
 Staurotypus salviniChiapas giant musk turtle11.7m[2]
 Staurotypus triporcatusMexican giant musk turtle19.8f[2]
 Sternotherus carinatusKeel-backed musk turtle13.5x[2]
 Sternotherus derbianusLord Derby’s African terrapin8.4x[5]
 Sternotherus minor minorLoggerhead musk turtle23.9m[2]
 Sternotherus nigerAfrican black terrapin5.8x[5]
 Sternotherus nigricansMadagascar blackish terrapin9.2x[5]
 Sternotherus odoratusStinkpot54.8x[2]
 Sternotherus sinuatusNatal terrapin8.2x[5]
LacertidaeAcanthodactylus boskianusDaudin’s fringe-fingered lizard1.6x[5]
 Acanthodactylus pardalisLeopard fringe-fingered lizard1.5x[5]
 Acanthodactylus scutellatusScutellated fringe-fingered lizard2.9x[5]
 Eremias rubropunctataRed spotted lizard3.3x[5]
 Lacerta agilisEuropean sand lizard1.6x[5]
 Lacerta dugesiMadeiran sharp-headed lizard4.8x[5]
 Lacerta gallotiGallot’s Canary Island lizard5.6x[5]
 Lacerta lepida lepidaJeweled lizard5.3x[2]
 Lacerta muralisWall lizard3.0x[4]
 Lacerta muralis filfoliensisEuropean wall lizard2.8x[5]
 Lacerta ocellataEuropean eyed lizard7.1x[5]
 Lacerta simonyiSimony’s Canary Island lizard5.4x[5]
 Lacerta viridisEuropean green lizard3.2x[5]
PelomedusidaePelomedusa galeataAfrican helmeted terrapin16.8x[5]
 Pelomedusa subrufa olivaceaHelmeted turtle7.3f[2]
 Pelomedusa subrufa subrufaHelmeted turtle16.0x[2]
 Pelusios adansoniiAdanson’s mud turtle4.7f[2]
 Pelusios castaneusWest African mud turtle41.0x[7]
 Pelusios castaneus derbianusWest African mud turtle24.8f[2]
 Pelusios nigerWest African black turtle14.7f[2]
 Pelusios sinuatusEast African serrated mud turtle6.1f[2]
 Pelusios subnigerEast African black mud turtle29.3x[2]
 Podocnemis sextuberculataSix-tubercled river turtle6.1f[2]
 Podocnemis cayennensis 5.2x[2]
 Podocnemis expansaS. American river turtle16.2f[2]
 Podocnemis unifilisYellow-spotted river turtle8.8m[2]
PlatysternidaePlatysternon megacephalumBig-headed turtle15.0m[2]
ScincidaeAcontias meleagrisS. African spotted slow skink3.9x[5]
 Chalcides ocellatusOcellated skink3.7x[2]
 Chalcides ocellatusPalaearctic eyed skink8.9x[5]
 Corucia zebrataSolomon Island skink2.8f[2]
 Egernia bungana 8.6x[2]
 Egernia cunninghamiCunningham’s skink10.4x[2]
 Egernia cunninghamiCunningham’s Australian skink19.9x[5]
 Egernia cunninghamiCunningham’s skink20.0X[7]
 Egernia hosmeriHosmer’s skink3.3x[2]
 Egernia majorLand mullet10.8x[2]
 Egernia stokesiiStoke’s Australian skink3.0x[5]
 Egernia striolatusAustralian striolated skink3.3x[5]
 Egernia whiteiWhite’s Australian skink3.2x[5]
 Eumeces algeriensis 9.0x[2]
 Eumeces algeriensisAlgerian skink3.8x[5]
 Eumeces laticepsBroadhead skink7.7f[2]
 Eumeces obsoletusGreat Plains skink6.2x[2]
 Eumeces schneideriSchneider’s skink9.3m[2]
 Eumeces schneideriGold skink7.5x[5]
 Lygosoma cauarinae 5.3x[2]
 Lygosoma decresienseAustralian descresian skink2.4x[5]
 Lygosoma labillardieriiLabillarier’s Australian skink2.0x[5]
 Lygosoma lesueuriiLesueur’s Australian skink8.9x[5]
 Lygosoma lineo-ocellatumNew Zealand skink2.3x[5]
 Lygosoma quoyiQuoy’s Australian skink3.0x[5]
 Macroscincus cocteauiiCocteau’s Cape Verde Is. skink8.9x[5]
 Ophiomorus tridactylusThree-toad snake skink5.8x[2]
 Riopa fernandi 1.5x[2]
 Tiliqua gigasGreat moluccan skink9.8x[5]
 Tiliqua nigroluteaAustralian black and yellow skink11.5x[5]
 Tiliqua scincoidesEastern blue tongue skink9.0f[2]
 Tiliqua scincoidesAustralian blue-tongued lizard14.3x[5]
 Trachydosaurus rugosus 14.5x[2]
 Trachysaurus rugosusAustralian stump-tailed skink7.1x[5]
SphenodontidaeSphenodon punctatusTuatara7.0m[2]
 Sphenodon punctatusNew Zealand tuatara11.7x[5]
 Sphenodon punctatusTuatara35.0x[4]
 Sphenodon punctatusTuatara50.0x[3]
 Sphenodon punctatusTuatara77.0x[7]
TeiidaeAmeiva ameivaGiant ameiva2.8m[2]
 Cnemidophorus neomexicanusNew Mexico whiptail3.2f[2]
 Cnemidophorus tigrisWestern whiptail7.8x[10]
 Dracaena guianensisGuyana caiman lizard9.3f[2]
 Tupinambis nigropunctatus 11.9m[2]
 Tupinambis nigropunctatusS. American black-pointed tegu lizard5.3x[5]
 Tupinambis rufescensRed tegu10.6m[2]
 Tupinambis rufescensS. American red tegu lizard7.3x[5]
 Tupinambis teguexinS. American tegu lizard12.9x[5]
 Tupinambis teguixinBlack tegu13.0x[2]
 Tupinambis teguixinBlack tegu7.6x[2]
TestudinidaeBatagur baskaIndian batagur terrapin9.2x[5]
 Batagur baskaRiver terrapin6.1f[2]
 Chrysemys concinna suwanniensis 40.7m[2]
 Chrysemys floridana 12.5x[2]
 Chrysemys nelsoni 15.8x[2]
 Chrysemys ornataCentral American adorned terrapin14.3x[5]
 Chrysemys pictaPainted turtle30.0x[9] [10]
 Chrysemys picta dorsalisSouthern painted turtle16.6x[2]
 Chrysemys picta marginataMidland painted turtle16.2f[2]
 Chrysemys picta pictaEastern painted turtle14.0f[2]
 Chrysemys rubriventris 4.3f[2]
 Chrysemys scripta elegans 30.5x[2]
 Chrysemys scriptaN. American serrated terrapin6.8x[5]
 Chrysemys scripta elegansN. American elegant terrapin5.9x[5]
 Chrysemys scripta rugosaN. American wrinkled terrapin12.4x[5]
 Chrysemys scripta hiltoni 25.3x[2]
 Chrysemys scripta scripta 8.6f[2]
 Chrysemys stejnegeri granti 8.1f[2]
 Cinixys bellianaAfrican tortoise10.8x[5]
 Cistudo carolinaN. American box tortoise35.0x[5]
 Cuora amboinensisSoutheast Asian box turtle38.2x[2]
 Cuora trifasciattaChinese three-striped box turtle9.6m[2]
 Cyclemus amboinensisAmboina box tortoise19.1x[5]
 Cyclemus dhorOldham’s East Indian terrapin9.1x[5]
 Cyclemus platynotaEast Indian flat-backed terrapin11.8x[5]
 Cyclemus trifasciataChinese trifasciated terrapin10.8x[5]
 Geochelone carbonariaRedfoot tortoise13.8f[2]
 Geochelone chilensisChaco tortoise19.8f[2]
 Geochelone denticulataS. American yellowfoot tortoise14.1m[2]
 Geochelone elegansIndian star tortoise14.1f[2]
 Geochelone elephantopus 47.6m[2]
 Geochelone giganteaAldabra tortoise37.3x[2]
 Geochelone giganteaAldabra tortoise152.0x[3] [7]
 Geochelone giganteaAldabra tortoise70.0x[1] [10]
 Geochelone pardalisLeopard tortoise7.3f[2]
 Geochelone radiataRadiated tortoise12.8m/f[2]
 Geochelone travancorica 11.8f[2]
 Geoclemys reevesiiReeve’s Chinese terrapin23.5x[5]
 Geoemyda grandis 20.4x[2]
 Geoemyda pulcherrima pulcherrima 20.4m[2]
 Geoemyda rubida 11.8x[2]
 Geoemyda spinosaEast Indian spinous terrapin3.2x[5]
 Geoemyda spinosa 9.3x[2]
 Geoemyda trijuga 40.0x[2]
 Gopherus agassiziDesert tortoise2.8f[2]
 Gopherus berlandieriTexas tortoise4.4m[2]
 Gopherus flavomarginataBolson tortoise4.8f[2]
 Gopherus polyphemusGopher tortoise8.5x[2]
 Homopus areolatusBeaked cape tortoise7.3f[2]
 Homopus areolatusAfrican tortoise3.1x[5]
 Kachuga dhongokaIndian dhongoka terrapin6.8x[5]
 Kachuga smithiiBrown roofed turtle9.8m[2]
 Kachuga tecta tentoriaIndian roof turtle11.0f[2]
 Kachuga tectaIndian roofed terrapin3.3x[5]
 Kinixys belliana bellianaBell’s hingeback tortoise14.4x[2]
 Kinixys erosaSerrated hingeback tortoise10.3m[2]
 Malacochersus tornieriAfrican pancake tortoise7.3x[2]
 Nicoria punctulariaS. American rough terrapin5.8x[5]
 Nicoria trijugaCeylonese terrapin12.8x[5]
 Testudo angulataS. African angulated tortoise11.8x[5]
 Testudo elongataBurmese tortoise11.8x[5]
 Testudo emysEast Indian upland tortoise11.9x[5]
 Testudo graecaMediteranean spur-thighed tortoise4.7x[2]
 Testudo hermanniHeermann’s tortoise8.3f[2]
 Testudo microphyesGalapagos albemarle tortoise16.5x[5]
 Testudo pardalisAfrican leopard tortoise10.1x[5]
 Testudo radiataMadagascar radiated tortoise9.8x[5]
 Testudo tabulataBrazilian tortoise16.2x[5]
TrionychidaeCyclanorbis senegalensisSenegal soft turtle6.4x[5]
 Lissemys punctataIndian flapshell turtle12.8x[2]
 Pelochelys bibroniAsian giant softshell10.1x[2]
 Trionyx cartilagineus 7.3m[2]
 Trionyx gangeticusGanges soft turtle14.0x[5]
 Trionyx spiniferN. American spinous soft turtle10.6x[5]
 Trionyx spiniferus spiniferusSpiny softshell16.8x[2]
 Trionyx triunguisAfrican softshell25.2m[2]
 Trionyx triunguisAfrican softshell25.0x[7]
TyphlopidaeTyphlops delalandiiDelalande’s ground snake0.8x[5]
 Typhlops punctatusPunctuated ground snake0.3x[5]
VaranidaeLanthanotus borneensisBorneo earless monitor6.9x[2]
 Varanus acanthurus brachyurusRidgetail monitor10.0f[2]
 Varanus bengalensisBengal monitor10.0x[2]
 Varanus flavescensYellow monitor4.5m[2]
 Varanus flavescensIndian yellowish waral lizard4.8x[5]
 Varanus giganteusPerentie5.9x[2]
 Varanus gouldiSand monitor7.8x[2]
 Varanus gouldiGould’s Australian waral lizard6.8x[5]
 Varanus griseusDesert monitor4.5m[2]
 Varanus griseusDesert waral lizard9.3x[5]
 Varanus komodoensisKomodo dragon8.9f[2]
 Varanus mertensiMerten’s water monitor6.6x[2]
 Varanus mitchelliMitchell’s water monitor6.6x[2]
 Varanus niloticusNile monitor6.6x[2]
 Varanus niloticusNile waral lizard6.4x[5]
 Varanus niloticusNile waral lizard5.5m[5]
 Varanus salavatorCrocodile monitor12.3m[2]
 Varanus salvatorEast Indian great water lizard10.6x[5]
 Varanus spenceriSpencer’s monitor4.3x[2]
 Varanus timorensisSpotted tree monitor6.8x[2]
 Varanus tristisArid monitor8.3x[2]
 Varanus variusLace monitor9.5m[2]
 Varanus variusAustralian lace lizard6.8x[5]
 Varanus variusLace monitor7.0x[7]
ViperidaeAgkistrodon acutus 7.5m[2]
 Agkistrodon bilineatus bilineatusCantil24.3x[2]
 Agkistrodon contortrix contortrixNorthern copperhead14.5m[2]
 Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctusBroad-banded copperhead21.5m[2]
 Agkistrodon contortrix mokasenNorthern copperhead29.8f[2]
 Agkistrodon controtrix pictigasterTrans-pecos copperhead20.4m[2]
 Agkistrodon halys blomhoffiSiberian pit viper6.2f[2]
 Agkistrodon halys brevicaudusSiberian pit viper12.5m[2]
 Agkistrodon hypnale 7.3x[2]
 Agkistrodon piscivorusWater moccasin21.0x[7]
 Agkistrodon piscivorus conantiFlorida cotton-mouth15.7x[2]
 Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostomaWestern cotton-mouth16.5m[2]
 Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorusEastern cotton-mouth13.1m[2]
 Agkistrodon piscivorus ssp.Cotton-mouth18.9x[2]
 Agkistrodon rhodostoma 5.8f[2]
 Atheris squamigerRough-scaled bush viper4.5x[2]
 Atractaspis bibroniiBibron’s mole viper8.9x[2]
 Bitis arietans arietansPuff adder15.8m[2]
 Bitis caudalisHorned puff adder5.3x[2]
 Bitis gabonica gabonicaGaboon viper10.8m[2]
 Bitis gabonica rhinocerosGaboon viper13.3f[2]
 Bitis nasicornisRhinoceros viper8.3f[2]
 Bothrops atrox asperCommon lancehead20.2x[2]
 Bothrops atrox atroxCommon lancehead8.5x[2]
 Bothrops godmani 7.4x[2]
 Bothrops jararacaJararaca6.5x[2]
 Causus rhombeatusCape viper6.6x[5]
 Cerastes cerastesHorned viper17.0f[2]
 Cerastes viperaCommon sand viper6.0x[2]
 Crotalus adamanteusEastern diamondback rattlesnake22.8x[2]
 Crotalus atroxWestern diamondback rattlesnake25.8f[2]
 Crotalus atroxWestern diamondback rattlesnake22.0x[7]
 Crotalus basiliscus basiliscusMexican West-Coast rattlesnake12.8f[2]
 Crotalus catalinensisSanta Catalina Island rattlesnake10.3f[2]
 Crotalus cerastes cerastesMojave Desert sidewinder8.1m[2]
 Crotalus cerastes cercobombusSonoran sidewinder10.7m[2]
 Crotalus cerastes laterorepensColorado Desert sidewinder13.8x[2]
 Crotalus durissus durissusNeotropical rattlesnake12.0x[2]
 Crotalus durissus terrificusNeotropical rattlesnake13.4x[2]
 Crotalus enyo enyoBaja California rattlesnake17.1x[2]
 Crotalus horridusTimber rattlesnake30.2m[2]
 Crotalus lepidus klauberiNew Mexico banded rock rattlesnake23.3x[2]
 Crotalus lepidus lepidusMottled rock rattlesnake17.9x[2]
 Crotalus lepidus maculosusRock rattlesnake7.2m[2]
 Crotalus mitchelli pyrrhusSouthwestern speckled rattlesnake15.5f[2]
 Crotalus mitchelli stephensiPanamint rattlesnake12.4f[2]
 Crotalus molossus molossusNorthern black-tailed rattlesnake15.5m[2]
 Crotalus molossus nigrescens 11.2x[2]
 Crotalus polystictusMexican lancehead rattlesnake5.7m[2]
 Crotalus pricei miquihuanusTwin-spotted rattlesnake5.1m[2]
 Crotalus pricei priceiTwin-spotted rattlesnake3.5m[2]
 Crotalus pusillusTancitanan dusky rattlesnake5.7x[2]
 Crotalus ruber ruberNorthern red rattlesnake14.4m[2]
 Crotalus scutulatus scutulatusMojave rattlesnake13.0f[2]
 Crotalus tigrisTiger rattlesnake15.3m[2]
 Crotalus tortugensisTortuga Island rattlesnake18.3m[2]
 Crotalus triseriatus triseriatusMexican dusky rattlesnake7.0f[2]
 Crotalus unicolorArulon Island rattlesnake14.8x[2]
 Crotalus viridis cerberusArizona black rattlesnake12.4x[2]
 Crotalus viridis #OOPS#eriSouthern Pacific rattlesnake19.4m[2]
 Crotalus viridis lutosusGreat Basin rattlesnake17.1m[2]
 Crotalus viridis nuntiusHopi rattlesnake6.2m[2]
 Crotalus viridis oreganusNorthern Pacific rattlesnake11.0x[2]
 Crotalus viridis viridisPrairie rattlesnake19.3m[2]
 Crotalus willardi willardiArizona ridge-nosed rattlesnake21.3f[2]
 Echis carinatusSaw-scaled viper11.8f[2]
 Echis coloratusPalestine saw-scaled viper11.8f[2]
 Eristocophis macmahoniiMcMahon’s viper9.3m[2]
 Lachesis muta stenophrysBushmaster8.5x[2]
 Pelamis platurusYellow-bellied sea snake2.1f[2]
 Sistrurus catenatus catenatusMassasauga9.9f[2]
 Sistrurus catenatus sspMassasauga14.0x[2]
 Sistrurus catenatus tergeminusWestern massasauga12.8x[2]
 Sistrurus miliarius barbouriDusky pygmy rattlesnake15.1m[2]
 Sistrurus miliarius miliariusCarolina pygmy rattlesnake7.2x[2]
 Sistrurus miliarius streckeriWestern pygmy rattlesnake6.6x[2]
 Sistrurus ravusMexican pygmy rattlesnake10.0m[2]
 Trimeresurus albolabrisWhite-lipped tree viper9.3f[2]
 Trimeresurus elegansElegant pit viper10.3x[2]
 Trimeresurus flavoviridis flavoviridisYellow-spotted pit viper8.9x[2]
 Trimeresurus gramineusIndian green tree viper6.2x[2]
 Trimeresurus monticola 3.9m[2]
 Trimeresurus okinavensis 10.8x[2]
 Trimeresurus purpureomaculatusMangrove viper8.9x[2]
 Trimeresurus steonegeriChinese green tree viper7.0x[2]
 Trimeresurus trigonocephusCeylon pit viper5.2x[2]
 Trimeresurus wagleri 5.8f[2]
 Ttimeresurus popeorumPope’s tree viper6.7x[2]
 Vipera ammodytesLong-nosed viper22.0x[7]
 Vipera ammodytes ammodytesLong-nosed viper9.3m[2]
 Vipera ammodytes montandoniSand viper8.8x[2]
 Vipera ammodytes ssp.Sand viper7.1x[2]
 Vipera aspisAsp viper7.8m[2]
 Vipera aspisEuropean asp-viper3.9x[5]
 Vipera berusNorthern palaearctic viper2.1x[5]
 Vipera latastiIataste’s viper5.5f[2]
 Vipera lebetina obtusaBluntnose viper10.1m[2]
 Vipera lebetina schwezeriBluntnose viper11.3x[2]
 Vipera lebetina ssp.Bluntnose viper11.3x[2]
 Vipera lebetina turanicaBluntnose viper5.1x[2]
 Vipera russelli russelliiRussell’s viper13.3x[2]
 Vipera russelli ssp.Russell’s viper11.6m[2]
 Vipera santhina raddei 6.1m[2]
 Vipera xanthina palestinaeCoastal viper10.1m[2]
 Walterinnesia aegyptiaBlack desert cobra6.7m[2]
XantusiidaeKlauberina riversianaIsland night lizard5.3m[2]
 Lepidophyma flavimaculatum flavimaculataYellow-spotted night lizard9.9f[2]
 Xantusia vigilisDesert night lizard3.8x[2]
XenopeltidaeXenopeltis unicolor 9.3x[2]
ZonuridaePseudocordylus microlepidotusS. African smooth-backed lizard2.8x[5]
 Zonurus cordylusS. African rough-scaled girdled lizard3.5x[5]
 Zonurus giganteusS. African derbian girdled lizard4.5x[5]

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