Mammal Longevity Records

Longevity Records
Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Fish; James R. Carey and Debra S. Judge; Odense University Press, ISBN 87-7838-539-3

Mammals

Table 1. Record Life Spans (years) of Mammals

((+) indicates that individual was still alive at the time that life span was recorded)

 

Order/FamilyGenus/SpeciesCommon NameWildCapt.M/FReference
 
Artiodactyla
AntilocapridaeAntilocapra americanaPronghorn10.0 x[100]
 Antilocapra americanaPronghorn 11.8x[143]
 Antilocapra americanaPronghorn10.012.0x[192]
BovidaeAddax nasomaculatusAddax 19.0x[100]
 Addax nasomaculatusAddax 25.3x[143]
 Aepyceros melampusImpala15.0 x[100]
 Aepyceros melampusImpala (+)13.017.4x[134] [143]
[155]
 Alcelaphus buselaphusHartebeest 19.0x[100]
 Alcelaphus buselaphusHartebeest20.0 x[181] [292]
 Ammotragus lerviaBarbary sheep10.020.0x[100]
 Ammotragus lerviaBarbary sheep 20.9x[143]
 Antidorcas marsupialisSpringbok20.0 x[100]
 Antidorcas marsupialisSpringbok 19.0x[143]
 Antilope cervicapraBlackbuck15.0 x[100]
 Antilope cervicapraBlackbuck (+)18.0 f[251]
 Bison bisonAmerican bison33.0 x[21]
 Bison bisonAmerican bison25.0 x[100]
 Bison bonasusEuropean bison27.0 x[100]
 Bison spp.Bison20.040.0x[10] [101]
[112] [167]
[188] [200]
 Bos gaurusSeladang 26.2x[143]
 Bos grunniensYak25.0 f[101]
 Bos taurusDomestic cattle (+) 20.0x[229]
 Boselaphus tragocamelusNilgai 21.0x[100]
 Boselaphus tragocamelusNilgai 21.7x[143]
 Bubalus arneeWild water buffalo25.0 x[100]
 Bubalus depressicornisLowland anoa30.0 x[100]
 Bubalus mindorensisAsian water buffalo 28.0x[101] [243]
 Budorcas taxicolorTakin 15.8x[143]
 Capra aegagrusWild goat12.0 x[100]
 Capra cylindricornisEast Caucasian tur22.0 x[229]
 Capra falconeriMarkhor13.0 x[100]
 Capra falconeriMarkhor12.0 x[229]
 Capra hircus domesticusDomestic goat20.8 x[21]
 Capra ibexIbex 22.3x[143]
 Capra ibex cylindricornisEast Caucasian tur12.0 x[100]
 Capra ibex ibexAlpine ibex14.0 x[100]
 Capra ibex nubianaNubian ibex 17.0x[100]
 Capra ibex sibiricaAsiatic ibex16.0 x[100]
 Capra pyrenaicaSpanish ibex16.0 x[100]
 Capricornis crispusSerow (+) 10.0x[176] [306]
[310] [335]
 Capricornis sumatraensisSerow 21.0x[100]
 Cephalophus monticolaBlue duiker12.0 x[100]
 Cephalophus nigrifronsDuiker 19.7x[143]
 Connochaetes gnouBlack wildebeest 20.0x[100]
 Connochaetes taurinusBrindled wildebeest 20.0x[100]
 Connochaetes taurinusWildebeest 21.5x[143]
 Damaliscus dorcasSassaby21.4 x[143]
 Damaliscus dorcas dorcasBontebok 17.0x[100]
 Damaliscus dorcas phillipsiBlesbok 17.0x[100]
 Gazella dorcasDorcas gazelle12.5 x[100]
 Gazella dorcasDorcas gazelle 17.1x[143]
 Gazella gazellaMountain gazelle12.0 x[100]
 Gazella leptocerosSlender-horned gazelle14.0 x[100]
 Gazella soemmeringiSoemmering’s gazelle14.0 x[100]
 Gazella subgutturosaPersian gazelle12.0 x[100]
 Gazella thomsoniThomson’s gazelle10.5 x[100]
 Hemitragus hylocriusNilgiri tahr9.0 x[100]
 Hemitragus jayakariArabian tahr14.0 x[100]
 Hemitragus jemlahicusHimalayan tahr10.0 x[100]
 Hemitragus jemlahicusHimalayan tahr 21.8x[143]
 Hippotragus equinusRoan antelope 17.0x[100]
 Hippotragus nigerSable antelope 17.0x[100]
 Hippotragus nigerSable antelope 19.8x[143]
 Kobus ellipsiprymnusWaterbuck 18.0x[100]
 Kobus ellipsiprymnusWaterbuck 18.7x[143]
 Kobus ellipsiprymnusWaterbuck18.5 f[299]
 Kobus kobKob 17.0x[100]
 Kobus lecheLechwe waterbuck15.0 x[100]
 Kobus megacerosMrs. Gray’s waterbuck10.0 x[100]
 Litocranius walleriGerenuk12.0 x[100]
 Litocranius walleriGerenuk (+)8.013.0x[178] [179]
 Madoqua (= Rhynchotragus) kirkiKirk’s dik-dik10.0 x[52] [114]
[152]
 Madoqua (= Rhynchotragus) kirkiKirk’s dik-dik 10.0x[100]
 Nemorhaedus goralGoral15.0 x[100]
 Nemorhaedus spp.Goral 17.6x[143]
 Neotragus moschatusSuni 9.0x[100]
 Neotragus moschatusSuni 10.2x[143]
 Neotragus pygmaeusRoyal antelope 6.0x[100]
 Oreamnos americanusMountain goat18.0 x[100]
 Oreamnos americanusMountain goat14.0 m[229]
 Oreamnos americanusMountain goat18.0 f[229]
 Oreotragus oreotragusKlipspringer 15.0x[100]
 Oreotragus oreotragusKlipspringer 12.1x[143]
 Oryx gazellaS. African oryx antelope 20.0x[100]
 Oryx spp.Oryx20.0 x[229]
 Ourebia ourebiOribi 14.0x[100] [161]
 Ovibos moschatusMuskox24.0 x[4] [100]
 Ovis ammonArgali13.0 x[100]
 Ovis canadensisAmerican bighorn sheep24.0 x[192]
 Ovis orientalisAsiatic mouflon13.0 x[100]
 Ovis orientalisUrial6.0 x[192]
 Ovis spp.Sheep20.0 m[88]
 Ovis spp.Sheep24.0 f[88]
 Pelea capreolusRhebok10.0 x[101]
 Procapra gutturosaCentral Asian gazelle 7.0x[143]
 Pseudois nayaurBharal 15.0x[100]
 Pseudois nayaurBharal24.0 x[192]
 Pseudois spp.Bharal 20.3x[143]
 Redunca arundinumSouthern reedbuck 10.0x[100]
 Redunca fulvorufulaMountain reedbuck12.0 x[100]
 Redunca reduncaBohor reedbuck 10.0x[100]
 Redunca reduncaBohor reedbuck 18.0x[143]
 Rupicapra rupicapraChamois20.0 x[100]
 Rupricapra spp.Chamois22.0 x[229]
 Saiga tataricaSaiga antelope10.0 x[100]
 Saiga tataricaSaiga antelope12.0 x[229]
 Sylvicapra grimmiaGray duiker 12.0x[100]
 Sylvicapra grimmiaGray duiker 14.3x[143]
 Syncerus cafferAfrican buffalo29.5 x[21]
 Syncerus cafferAfrican buffalo26.016.0x[100]
 Syncerus cafferAfrican buffalo18.029.5x[143]
 Taurotragus oryxEland 23.6f[311]
 Tetracerus quadricornisFour-horned antelope10.0 x[100]
 Tetracerus quadricornisFour-horned antelope 10.0x[143]
 Tragelaphus angasiNyala16.0 x[100]
 Tragelaphus eurycerosBongo19.0 x[100]
 Tragelaphus eurycerosBongo 19.4f[252]
 Tragelaphus imberbisLesser kudu (+)15.0 x[100]
 Tragelaphus imberbisLesser kudu (+)10.015.0x[177] [180]
 Tragelaphus oryxEland antelope25.0 x[100]
 Tragelaphus spekeiSitatunga20.0 x[161]
 Tragelaphus spekeiSitatunga19.0 x[100]
 Tragelaphus strepsicerosGreater kudu 23.0x[100]
 Tragelaphus strepsicerosGreater kudu 20.8x[143]
CamelidaeCamelus dromedariusDromedary, one-humped camel40.0 x[100]
 Camelus ferusBactrian camel (+)35.0 x[21]
 Camelus ferusBactrian, two-humped camel40.0 x[100]
 Camelus spp.Camel 50.0x[87]
 Lama guanicoeGuanaco20.0 x[100]
 Lama guanicoeGuanaco 28.3x[143]
 Lama guanicoe f. glamaLlama20.0 x[100]
 Vicugna vicugnaVicuna20.0 x[100]
 Vicugna vicugnaVicuna 24.8x[78] [79]
[277]
CervidaeAlces alcesMoose (+)16.0 x[100]
 Alces alcesMoose27.0 x[241]
 Axis axisAxis deer 15.0x[100]
 Axis axisAxis deer 20.8x[143]
 Axis porcinusHog deer 20.0x[100]
 Capreolus capreolusRoe deer15.0 x[100]
 Capreolus spp.Roe deer17.0 x[229]
 Cervus elaphusRed deer26.8 x[21]
 Cervus elaphusRed deer20.0 x[100]
 Cervus elaphusRed deer 24.7x[143]
 Cervus eldiBrow-antlered deer 19.4f[246]
 Cervus (Przewalskium) albirostrisThorold’s deer18.0 x[100]
 Dama damaFallow deer (+) 20.0x[72]
 Dama damaFallow deer25.0 x[100]
 Elaphurus davidianusPere David’s deer18.0 x[100]
 Elaphurus davidianusPere David’s deer23.3 x[144]
 Hippocamelus antisensisGuemals 10.6x[143]
 Hydropotes inermisChinese water deer12.0 x[100]
 Hydropotes inermisChinese water deer (+) 11.5x[143]
 Mazama americanaRed brocket12.0 x[100]
 Mazama americanaRed brocket 13.8x[143]
 Mazama gouazoubiraBrown brocket12.0 x[100]
 Moschus spp.Musk deer 20.0x[95]
 Muntiacus muntjakIndian muntjac (+) 17.0x[100]
 Muntiacus muntjakIndian muntjac (+) 17.6x[143]
 Odocoileus virginianusWhite-tailed deer10.016.0x[100]
 Odocoileus virginianusWhite-tailed deer 23.0x[312]
 Pudu mephistophelesNorthern pudu10.0 x[100]
 Pudu puduSouthern pudu 12.5x[143]
 Pudu puduSouthern pudu10.0 x[100]
 Rangifer tarandusCaribou15.020.2x[10] [16]
[143] [273]
 Rangifer tarandusCaribou (+)8.0 m[100]
 Rangifer tarandusCaribou (+)10.0 f[100]
GiraffidaeGiraffa camelopardalisGiraffe36.3 x[21]
 Giraffa camelopardalisGiraffe26.0 f[49]
 Giraffa camelopardalisGiraffe25.028.0x[100] [192]
 Giraffa camelopardalisGiraffe 36.2x[143]
 Okapia johnstoniOkapi (+) 30.0x[100]
 Okapia johnstoniOkapi 33.0x[143]
 Okapia johnstoniOkapi 15.0x[192]
HippopotamidaeChoeropsis liberiensisPygmy hippopotamus42.0 x[100]
 Choeropsis liberiensisPygmy hippopotamus 43.8x[143]
 Choeropsis liberiensisPygmy hippopotamus35.042.0x[192]
 Hippopotamus amphibiusHippopotamus54.5 x[21]
 Hippopotamus amphibiusHippopotamus50.040.0x[100]
 Hippopotamus amphibiusHippopotamus 54.3x[143]
 Hippopotamus amphibiusHippopotamus45.049.0x[192]
SuidaeBabyrousa babyrussaBabirusa 24.0x[24] [54]
[101]
 Babyrousa babyrussaBabirusa24.0 x[100] [192]
 Hylochoerus meinertzhageniGiant forest hog 3.0x[100]
 Phacochoerus aethiopicusWart hog18.8 x[100]
 Phacochoerus aethiopicusWart hog 18.8x[143]
 Phacochoerus aethiopicusWart hog15.0 x[192]
 Potamochoerus porcusBush pig20.0 x[100]
 Potamochoerus porcusBush pig 20.0x[143]
 Potamochoerus porcusBush pig15.0 x[192]
 Sus salvaniusPygmy hog7.5 x[100]
 Sus salvaniusPygmy hog12.0 x[192]
 Sus scrofaWild boar21.0 x[100]
 Sus scrofaWild boar20.0 x[192]
 Sus verrucosusJavan pig14.0 x[100]
 Sus verrucosus (= celebensis)Javan pig (+)10.0 x[100]
 Sus spp.Pig, hog, or boar 27.0x[229]
TayassuidaeCatagonus wagneriChaco peccary 1.0x[100]
 Tayassu pecariWhite-lipped peccary13.3 x[100]
 Tayassu tajacuCollared peccary24.7 x[100]
 Tayassu tajacuCollared peccary 24.6x[143]
 Tayassu tajacuCollared peccary10.021.0x[192]
TragulidaeHyemoschus aquaticusWater chevrotain13.0 x[100]
 Hyemoschus aquaticusWater chevrotain14.0 x[192]
 Tragulus javanicusLesser Malay chevrotain 12.0x[100]
 Tragulus napuLarger Malay chevrotain 14.0x[100]
 Tragulus napuLarger Malay chevrotain (+) 14.0x[143]
 
Carnivora
AiluridaeAilurus fulgensLesser panda14.0 x[100]
 Ailurus fulgensLesser panda 13.4x[143]
AiluropodidaeAiluropoda melanoleucaGiant panda26.0 x[21]
 Ailuropoda melanoleucaGiant panda 30.0x[100]
CanidaeAlopex lagopusArctic fox10.0 x[100]
 Alopex lagopusArctic fox 15.0x[143]
 Atelocynus microtisSmall-eared dog 11.0x[143]
 Canis adustusSide-striped jackal 10.0x[266]
 Canis aureusGolden jackal 14.0x[100]
 Canis aureusGolden jackal 16.0x[159] [176]
[216] [217]
[228] [268]
[321]
 Canis dingoDingo 14.0x[192]
 Canis familiaris dingoDingo14.8 x[101]
 Canis familiarisDomestic dog29.5 x[21]
 Canis familiarisDomestic dog 20.0x[8] [32]
[100]
 Canis latransCoyote14.521.8x[13] [90]
[143] [153]
 Canis latransCoyote14.518.0x[192]
 Canis latransCoyote (+)21.0 x[21]
 Canis latransCoyote (+) 15.0x[100]
 Canis lupusGray wolf10.020.0x[100]
 Canis lupusGray wolf16.020.0x[192]
 Canis lupusGray wolf13.716.0f[201] [202]
[203] [204]
[205] [206]
[317] [318]
 Canis lupus f. dingoDingo (+) 14.0x[100]
 Canis mesomelasBlack-backed jackal 14.0x[12] [22]
[159] [215]
[216]
 Canis rufusRed wolf 14.0x[37]
 Canis rufusRed wolf16.020.0x[192]
 Cerdocyon thousCrab-eating fox 11.5x[294]
 Chrysocyon brachyurusManed wolf 15.0x[100] [192]
 Chrysocyon brachyurusManed wolf 13.0x[143]
 Cuon alpinusDhole 16.0x[229]
 Fennecus zerdaFennec fox 12.0x[100]
 Fennecus zerdaFennec fox 11.6x[143]
 Lycaon pictusAfrican hunting dog11.0 x[77] [159]
[193] [275]
[319] [321]
 Lycaon pictusAfrican hunting dog10.0 x[100] [192]
 Nyctereutes procyonoidesRaccoon dog11.07.0x[100]
 Nyctereutes procyonoidesRaccoon dog 10.7x[143]
 Otocyon megalotisBat-eared fox 13.8x[143]
 Otocyon megalotisBat-eared fox (+) 6.0x[100]
 Pseudalopex gymnocercusS. American fox 13.7x[143]
 Speothos venaticusBush dog 10.3x[143]
 Speothos venaticusBush dog (+) 10.0x[100]
 Urocyon cinereoargenteusGray fox (+) 13.0x[100]
 Urocyon spp.Gray fox 13.7x[143]
 Vulpes bengalensisIndian fox (+)10.0 x[100]
 Vulpes canaBlanford’s fox10.0 x[100]
 Vulpes chamaCape fox10.0 x[100]
 Vulpes macrotisKit fox (+) 20.0x[143]
 Vulpes pallidaPale fox10.0 x[100]
 Vulpes veloxSwift fox 12.8x[59] [156]
 Vulpes veloxSwift fox 12.0x[100]
 Vulpes vulpesRed fox7.015.0x[1]
 Vulpes vulpesRed fox12.0 x[1]
FelidaeAcinonyx jubatusCheetah 19.0x[57] [101]
[159]
 Acinonyx jubatusCheetah15.0 x[100]
 Acinonyx jubatusCheetah12.017.0x[192]
 Felis caracalCaracal 17.0x[159]
 Felis catusDomestic cat34.0 x[21]
 Felis (= Profelis = Puma) concolorCougar (+) 20.0x[47]
 Felis (= Lynx) lynxLynx 26.8x[257]
 Felis nigripesBlack-footed cat12.0 x[100]
 Felis (= Leopardus) pardalisOcelot 20.3x[143]
 Felis (= Lynx) rufusBobcat32.3 x[21]
 Felis (= Lynx) rufusBobcat 32.3x[143]
 Felis (= Leptailurus) servalServal 19.8f[323]
 Felis silvestrisWild cat18.0 x[100]
 Felis silvestrisWild cat15.0 x[192]
 Felis silvestrisWild cat 15.0x[159]
 Felis (= Profelis) temminckiAsian golden cat 18.0x[176]
 Felis (= Leopardus) wiediiMargay (+) 13.0x[101]
 Leopardus tigrinusLittle spotted cat 20.0x[100]
 Leopardus wiediiMargay (+) 20.0x[100]
 Leptailurus servalServal23.0 x[100]
 Lynx (= Felis) rufusBobcat15.0 x[100]
 Neofelis nebulosaClouded leopard 17.0x[100] [101]
[192]
 Neofelis (= Panthera) tigrisTiger18.025.0x[100]
 Panthera leoAfrican lion 30.0x[101] [102]
[159] [275]
 Panthera leoLion29.0 x[21]
 Panthera leoLion15.025.0x[100]
 Panthera leoLion15.024.0x[192]
 Panthera oncaJaguar 22.0x[100] [101]
[102] [218]
 Panthera oncaJaguar 20.0x[192]
 Panthera pardusLeopard12.020.0x[192]
 Panthera pardusLeopard (+) 23.0x[101] [102]
[159]
 Panthera tigrisTiger26.3 x[21]
 Panthera tigrisTiger15.020.0x[192]
 Panthera tigrisTiger26.026.0x[197]
 Panthera unciaSnow leopard 15.0x[192]
 Panthera unciaSnow leopard 19.0x[133]
 Prionailurus bengalensisLeopard cat15.0 x[100]
 Profelis (= Caracal) caracalCaracal (+)12.0 x[100]
 Profelis (= Puma) concolorMountain lion18.0 x[100]
 Uncia (= Panthera) unciaSnow leopard 18.0x[100]
HyaenidaeCrocuta crocutaSpotted hyena 41.1x[143]
 Crocuta crocutaSpotted hyena25.040.0x[192]
 Hyaena brunneaBrown hyena12.0 x[211]
 Hyaena brunneaBrown hyena 13.0x[192]
 Hyaena hyaenaStriped hyena 24.0x[259] [260]
 Hyaena hyaenaStriped hyena 24.0x[192]
 Proteles cristatusAardwolf 14.3x[143]
 Proteles cristatusAardwolf 13.0x[192]
MustelidaeAonyx capensisCape clawless otter 11.0x[100] [143]
 Arctonyx collarisHog badger 13.9x[100] [143]
 Conepatus chingaHog-nosed skunk 6.6x[143]
 Conepatus leuconotusHog-nosed skunk 7.0x[100]
 Eira barbaraTayra 18.0x[100] [101]
 Enhydra lutrisSea otter23.0 f[271]
 Enhydra lutrisSea otter 19.0m[271]
 Enhydra lutrisSea otter30.0 x[100]
 Galictis vittataGrison 10.5x[143]
 Gulo guloWolverine 17.3x[143]
 Gulo guloWolverine 18.0x[100]
 Ictonyx striatusStriped polecat, zorilla 13.3x[100] [143]
 Lutra canadensisCanadian otter21.0 x[21]
 Lutra canadensisRiver otter 23.0f[229]
 Lutra lutraEurasian river otter 22.0x[100]
 Martes americanaAmerican marten 17.0x[100] [229]
 Martes flavigulaYellow-throated marten 14.0x[100] [176]
[304]
 Martes foinaBeech marten 18.1x[143]
 Martes martesEuropean pine marten 17.0x[101] [304]
 Martes martesPine marten10.015.0x[100]
 Martes pennntiFisher10.010.0x[100] [244]
[245]
 Martes zibellinaSable 15.0x[100] [101]
[228] [304]
 Meles melesBadger 16.0x[100]
 Meles melesOld World badger 16.2x[143]
 Mellivora capensisHoney badger26.4 x[143]
 Mellivora capensisHoney badger 26.5x[100]
 Melogale moschataFerret badger (+) 10.5x[143]
 Mephitis mephitisStriped skunk6.010.0x[100]
 Mephitis spp.Striped skunk 12.9x[143]
 Mustela lutreolaEuropean mink10.0 x[100] [228]
[304]
 Mustela nigripesBlack-footed ferret 12.0x[100] [117]
 Mustela putoriusEuropean polecat6.014.0x[20] [100]
[228] [304]
 Mustela putoriusEuropean polecat (+)10.0 x[100]
 Mustela sibiricaSiberian weasel 8.8x[100] [143]
 Mustela visonAmerican mink10.0 x[10] [35]
[100] [132]
[191]
 Poecilictis libycaN. African striped weasel (+) 5.0x[100] [268]
 Poecilogale albinuchaStriped weasel 5.2x[296]
 Poecilogale albinuchaStriped weasel 5.0x[100]
 Pteronura brasiliensisGiant otter 12.8x[143]
 Pteronura brasiliensisGiant otter 12.0x[100]
 Spilogale putoriusSpotted skunk 10.0x[100]
 Spilogale spp.Spotted skunk 9.8x[60]
 Taxidea taxusAmerican badger14.026.0x[143]
 Taxidea taxusAmerican badger26.0 x[21]
 Taxidea taxusAmerican badger14.016.0x[100]
 Vormela peregusnaMarbled polecat 8.9x[100] [143]
ProcyonidaeBassaricyon gabbiiOlingo (+)24.0 x[100]
 Bassaricyon spp.Olingo 17.1x[143]
 Bassariscus astutusRingtail16.0 x[100]
 Bassariscus astutusRingtail 14.3x[143]
 Bassariscus sumichrastiCacomistle23.0 x[100]
 Nasua nasua (= narica)Coatimundi14.0 x[100]
 Nasua nasuaCoatimundi 17.7x[143]
 Nasua nasuaCoatimundi14.0 x[100]
 Potos flavusKinkajou29.0 x[100]
 Potos flavusKinkajou 23.6x[129] [229]
 Procyon cancrivorusCrab-eating raccoon14.0 x[100]
 Procyon lotorCommon raccoon (+)20.0 x[100]
 Procyon spp.Common raccoon16.020.6x[143]
UrsidaeMelursus (= Ursus) ursinusSloth bear 30.0x[100]
 Tremarctos ornatusSpectacled bear 25.0x[100]
 Tremarctos ornatusSpectacled bear 36.4x[143]
 Ursus (= Euarchtos) americanusAmerican black bear26.0 f[10] [145]
[242]
 Ursus (= Euarctos) americanusAmerican black bear32.0 x[192]
 Ursus arctosGrizzly bear25.050.0x[46] [58]
[91] [145]
[221] [237]
[293] [304]
 Ursus arctosGrizzly bear30.047.0x[192]
 Ursus malayanusMalayan sun bear 24.8x[143]
 Ursus (= Thalarctos) maritimusPolar bear (+)30.038.2x[51] [169]
[253] [300]
[316]
 Ursus (= Thalarctos) maritimusPolar bear25.0 x[192]
 Ursus (= Selenarctos) thibetanusAsiatic black bear 33.0x[176]
 Ursus (= Melursus) ursinusSloth bear 40.0x[171] [229]
[307]
 Ursus ursus arctosEuropean brown bear47.0 x[21]
ViverridaeArctictis binturongBinturong18.0 x[100]
 Arctictis binturongBinturong 22.7x[143]
 Arctogalidia trivirgataSmall-toothed palm civet 15.8x[143]
 Arctogalidia trivirgataSmall-toothed palm civet12.0 x[100]
 Atilax paludinosusMarsh mongoose 17.4x[143]
 Atilax paludinosusMarsh mongoose (+) 17.0x[100]
 Bdeogale nigripesBlack-legged mongoose (+) 15.0x[100]
 Bdeogale nigripesBlack-legged mongoose 15.8x[143]
 Civettictis civettaAfrican civet 28.0x[143]
 Civettictis civettaAfrican civet (+)15.0 x[100]
 Crossarchus obscurusDark mongoose 4.5x[100]
 Crossarchus spp.Cusimanse 9.0x[93]
 Cryptoprocta feroxFossa (+) 20.0x[2] [3]
[164] [229]
 Cynogale bennettiiOtter civet (+) 5.0x[100]
 Cynogale bennettiiOtter civet 5.0x[143]
 Cynictis penicillataYellow mongoose (+) 15.0x[100]
 Cynictis penicillataYellow mongoose 15.2x[143]
 Fossa fossaMalagasy civet 11.0x[143]
 Fossa fossaMalagasy civet 11.0x[100]
 Galidia elegansMalagasy ring-tailed mongoose (+) 13.0x[100]
 Galidia elegansMalagasy ring-tailed mongoose 13.2x[143]
 Genetta genettaEuropean genet 34.0x[192]
 Genetta genettaEuropean genet (+) 14.0x[100]
 Genetta genettaEuropean genet 21.6x[143]
 Genetta genettaEuropean genet 13.0f[159] [268]
[330]
 Genetta tigrinaLarge-spotted genet 9.5x[100]
 Helogale parvulaDwarf mongoose 10.0x[100]
 Hemigalus derbyanusBanded palm civet (+) 12.0x[100] [143]
 Herpestes ichneumonMongoose12.0 x[100]
 Herpestes ichneumonMongoose (+) 20.0x[67] [100]
[159] [176]
[263]
 Herpestes javanicusJavan mongoose (+) 8.0x[100]
 Herpestes sanguineusSlender mongoose 6.0x[100]
 Ichneumia albicaudaWhite-tailed mongoose (+) 12.0x[100]
 Ichneumia albicaudaWhite-tailed mongoose (+) 10.0x[143]
 Mungos mungoBanded mongoose 12.0x[322]
 Mungos mungoBanded mongoose 11.0x[100]
 Nandinia binotataAfrican palm civet 15.8x[143]
 Nandinia binotataAfrican palm civet (+) 15.0x[100]
 Paguma larvataMasked palm civet 15.4x[176] [207]
 Paguma larvataMasked palm civet 15.0x[192]
 Paguma larvataMasked palm civet18.0 x[100]
 Paradoxurus hermaphroditusCommon palm civet (+)22.0 x[100]
 Paradoxurus hermaphroditusCommon palm civet 22.4x[207]
 Poiana richardsoniAfrican linsang 5.3x[143]
 Poiana richardsoniAfrican linsang (+) 5.0x[100]
 Prionodon linsangBanded linsang (+) 10.0x[100]
 Prionodon linsangBanded linsang 10.7x[143]
 Salanoia concolorSalano4.8 x[21]
 Salanoia concolorSalano 4.8x[143]
 Suricata suricattaMeerkat 12.5x[143]
 Suricata suricattaMeerkat (+) 12.0x[100]
 Viverra civettaAfrican civet28.0 x[21]
 Viverra tangalungaTangalunga 12.0x[100]
 Viverra zibethaOriental civet (+) 15.0x[100]
 Viverra zibethaOriental civet (+) 20.0x[294]
 Viverricula indicaLesser Oriental civet 10.5x[143]
 Viverricula indicaLesser Oriental civet (+) 8.0x[100]
 
Cetacea
BalaenidaeBalaena mysticetusBowhead whale40.0 x[10] [26]
[65] [195]
[226]
 Balaena mysticetusBowhead whale (+)30.0 x[100]
BalaenopteridaeBalaenoptera acutorostrataMinke whale50.0 x[100]
 Balaenoptera acutorostrataMinke whale47.0 x[105]
 Balaenoptera acutorostrataMinke whale45.0 x[192]
 Balaenoptera borealisSei whale70.0 x[100]
 Balaenoptera borealisSei whale74.0 x[105]
 Balaenoptera edeniBryde’s whale72.0 x[65] [105]
[185] [213]
[284]
 Balaenoptera musculusBlue whale45.0 x[21]
 Balaenoptera musculusBlue whale50.0 x[100]
 Balaenoptera musculusBlue whale110.0 x[105]
 Balaenoptera musculusBlue whale65.0 x[192]
 Balaenoptera physalusFin whale116.0 x[21]
 Balaenoptera physalusFin whale114.0 x[105]
 Megaptera novaeangliaeHumpback whale77.0 x[105]
 Megaptera novaeangliaeHumpback whale95.0 x[192]
DelphinidaeCephalorhynchus commersoniiSouthern dolphin18.0 x[94] [186]
 Delphinus delphisCommon dolphin (+)20.0 x[175] [240]
[284]
 Globicephala sieboldii (= macrorhynchus)Pilot whale63.0 f[149]
 Globicephala sieboldii (= macrorhynchus)Pilot whale46.0 m[149]
 Grampus griseusRisso’s dolphin20.0 x[229]
 Lagenorhynchus acutusAtlantic white-sided dolphin27.0 f[10] [212]
[281] [284]
[333]
 Lagenorhynchus acutusAtlantic white-sided dolphin22.0 m[10] [212]
[281] [284]
[333]
 Lagenorhynchus obliquidensPacific white-sided dolphin 20.0x[10] [212]
[281] [284]
[333]
 Orcinus orcaKiller whale90.0 x[21]
 Orcinus orcaKiller whale50.0 x[105]
 Orcinus orcaKiller whale100.0 x[192]
 Peponocephala electraMany-toothed blackfish47.0 x[31] [240]
 Pseudorca crassidensFalse killer whale22.0 x[240] [247]
 Stenella attenuataSpotted dolphin46.0 x[229]
 Stenella coeruleoalbaStriped dolphin50.0 x[229]
 Steno bredanensisRough-toothed dolphin32.0 x[240]
 Tursiops aduncus (= truncatus)Bottle-nosed dolphin35.0 x[212] [230]
[270] [283]
[285]
 Tursiops truncatusBottle-nosed dolphin25.0 x[21]
 Tursiops truncatusBottle-nosed dolphin (+)25.030.0x[100]
 Tursiops truncatusBottle-nosed dolphin25.0 x[21] [212]
[230] [270]
[283] [285]
EschrichtidaeEschrichtius robustusGray whale70.0 x[105]
 Eschrichtius robustusGray whale77.0 x[192]
IniidaeInia geoffrensisAmazon dolphin30.018.0x[30]
MonodontidaeDelphinapterus leucasWhite, or beluga whale17.3 x[21]
 Delphinapterus leucasWhite, or beluga whale30.0 x[25] [27]
[282]
 Delphinapterus leucasWhite, or beluga whale40.0 x[192]
 Monodon monocerosNarwhal40.0 x[18] [65]
[192] [194]
[255] [305]
PhocoenidaeNeophocaena phocaenoidesFinless porpoise23.0 x[148] [192]
 Phocoena phocoenaCommon porpoise13.0 x[84] [85]
[86] [192]
[290]
 Phocoenoides dalliDall’s porpoise22.0 x[140] [146]
 Phocoenoides dalliDall’s porpoise (+)17.0 x[192]
PhyseteridaeKogia brevicepsPygmy sperm whale17.0 x[192]
 Physeter catodonSperm whale77.0 x[18] [36]
[80] [105]
[231] [232]
[256]
 Physeter macrocephalusSperm whale (+)32.0 x[21]
 Physeter macrocephalusSperm whale70.0 x[192]
PlatanistidaePlatanista gangeticaGanges and Indus dolphins28.0 m[147]
 Platanista gangeticaGanges dolphin (+)28.0 x[192]
 Platanista minorIndus dolphin (+)28.0 x[192]
PontoporiidaePontoporia blainvilleiLa Plata dolphin16.0 x[30] [107]
[108] [150]
[192]
ZiphiidaeBerardius bairdiiBaird’s beaked whale71.0 x[199]
 Hyperoodon ampullatusNorthern bottle-nosed whale37.0 x[14] [192]
 Mesoplodon densirostrisBeaked whale27.0 f[199]
 Ziphius cavirostrisGoose-beaked whale36.0 x[199]
 
Chiroptera
HipposideridaeHipposideros fulvusOld World leaf-nosed bat12.0 x[313]
MolossidaeTadarida brasiliensisFree-tailed bat (+)8.0 x[174]
NoctilionidaeNoctilio leporinusBulldog bat 11.5x[143]
PhyllostomidaeAnoura geoffroyiGeoffroy’s long-nosed bat (+) 10.0x[143]
 Artibeus jamaicensisNeotropical fruit bat (+) 10.0x[143]
 Carollia perspicillataShort-tailed leaf-nosed bat (+) 12.4x[143]
 Desmodus rotundusCommon vampire bat 19.5f[187]
 Glossophaga soricinaLong-tongued nector bat (+) 10.0x[143]
 Macrotus californicus 10.4 x[314]
 Vampyrops lineatusWhite-lined bat 10.2x[143]
PteropodidaeEidolon helvumStraw-colored fruit bat 21.8x[143]
 Pteropus giganteusFlying fox 31.4x[143]
 Rousettus aegypticus.Rousette fruit bat 22.9x[143]
RhinolophidaeRhinolophus ferrumequinumHorseshoe bat (+)30.0 x[39]
 Rhinolophus ferrumquinumGreater horseshoe bat23.0 x[100]
 Rhinolophus hipposiderosLesser horseshoe bat18.0 x[100]
VespertilionidaeAntrozous pallidusPallid bat9.1 x[182]
 Barbastella barbastellusBarbastelle21.0 x[100]
 Eptesicus fuscusBig brown bat19.0 x[119] [278]
 Eptesicus serotinusSerotine6.0 x[83]
 Lasionycteris noctivagansSilver-haired bat12.0 x[313]
 Lasiurus cinereusHoary bat2.1 m[313]
 Miniopterus schreibersiSchreiber’s bat14.0 x[100]
 Myotis bechsteiniBechstein’s bat19.0 x[100]
 Myotis dasyenemePond bat15.0 x[100]
 Myotis daubentoniDaubenton’s bat15.0 x[100]
 Myotis emarginatusGeoffroy’s bat15.0 x[100]
 Myotis evotis 2.2 m[313]
 Myotis grisescensGray myotis16.5 f[313]
 Myotis lucifugusLittle brown bat (+) 30.0x[151]
 Myotis myotisGreater mouse-eared bat18.0 x[100]
 Myotis mystacinusWhiskered bat18.0 x[100]
 Myotis nattereriNatterer’s bat15.0 x[100]
 Myotis nigricansBlack myotis7.0 x[313]
 Myotis sodalisSocial bat13.8 m[313]
 Myotis thysanodesFringed myotis18.3 m[313]
 Myotis vivesiFish-eating bat10.010.0x[313]
 Myotis volansLong-legged myotis2.1 m[313]
 Nyctalus noctulaNoctule8.0 x[100]
 Nycticeius humeralisEvening bat (+) 5.0x[328]
 Pipistrellus pipistrellusCommon pipistrelle9.0 x[100]
 Pipistrellus subflavusPipistrelle14.8 x[324]
 Plecotus auritusCommon long-eared bat12.0 x[100]
 Plecotus austriacusGray long-eared bat15.0 x[100]
 Plecotus rafinesquiiEastern lump-nosed bat10.1 f[314]
 Plecotus townsendiiLong-eared bat10.0 x[62]
 
Dermoptera
CynocephalidaeCynocephallus spp.Colugo (flying lemur) 17.5x[176]
 
Hyraccoidea
ProcaviidaeDendrohyrax arboreusTree hyrax (+)10.0 x[100]
 Dendrohyrax arboreusTree hyrax 12.3x[143]
 Dendrohyrax dorsalisTree hyrax 5.5x[143]
 Heterohyrax bruceiBush hyrax14.0 x[100]
 Heterohyrax spp.Gray hyrax11.0 f[120] [121]
[122] [123]
[124]
 Procavia capensisRock hyrax14.0 x[100]
 Procavia capensisRock hyrax8.511.0x[123] [143]
 
Insectivora
ErinaceidaeEchinosorex gymnurusMoon rat 4.6x[100]
 Echinosorex gymnurusMoon rat 4.4x[143]
 Erinaceus algirusAlgerian hedgehog 7.0x[100]
 Erinaceus europaeusHedgehog14.0 x[21]
 Erinaceus europaeusEurasian hedgehog7.07.0x[45]
 Erinaceus europaeusWest European hedgehog8.0 x[100]
 Hemiechinus auritusLong-eared desert hedgehog 6.8x[143]
 Paraechinus aethiopicusDesert hedgehog 4.5x[143]
SolenodontidaeSolenodon cubanusCuban solenodon 6.0x[100]
 Solenodon paradoxusHaitian solenodon 11.3x[100] [229]
SoricidaeBlarina brevicaudaShort-tailed shrew2.5 x[100]
 Crocidura leucodonBicolored white-toothed shrew3.0 x[100]
 Crocidura russulaCommon European white-toothed shrew3.2 x[100]
 Crocidura suaveolensLesser white-toothed shrew 2.7x[100]
 Crocidura spp.White-toothed shrew 4.0x[229]
 Myosorex variusForest shrew1.0 x[100]
 Neomys anomalusSouthern water shrew2.0 x[100]
 Neomys fodiensEurasian water shrew3.0 x[100]
 Neomys fodiensEurasian water shrew 1.6x[209]
 Sorex alpinusAlpine shrew1.3 x[100]
 Sorex araneusEurasian common shrew2.0 x[100]
 Sorex caecutiensLaxmann’s shrew2.0 x[100]
 Sorex fumeusSmoky shrew1.0 x[100]
 Sorex minutusLesser shrew2.0 x[100]
 Sorex trowbridgeiTrowbridge’s shrew1.5 x[100]
 Sorex vagransVagrant shrew1.3 x[100]
 Sorex spp.Long-tailed shrew 2.0f[229]
 Suncus etruscusPygmy white-toothed shrew2.0 x[21]
 Suncus etruscusSavi’s pygmy shrew1.32.7x[100]
 Suncus murinusHouse shrew2.5 x[100]
 Suncus spp.Musk shrew 2.5x[207]
 Tupaia belangeriTree shrew 10.0x[100]
 Tupaia glisTree shrew (+)12.0 x[100]
 Cryptotis spp.Small-eared shrew 2.6x[214]
TalpidaeGalemys pyrenaicusPyrenean desman4.0 x[100]
 Galemys pyrenaicusPyrenean desman3.5 x[258]
 Parascalops breweriHairy-tailed mole4.0 x[105]
 Parascalops breweriHairy-tailed mole5.0 x[100]
 Scalopus aquaticusEastern aquatic mole3.0 x[100] [109]
 Talpa europaeaEuropean mole, common mole4.0 x[100]
 Talpa europaeaEuropean mole3.0 x[192]
 Talpa micruraEastern mole3.0 x[100]
TenrecidaeEchinops telfairiLesser Madagascar “hedgehog”1.213.0x[100] [143]
 Hemicentetes nigricepsBlack-headed streaked tenrec2.6 x[100]
 Hemicentetes semispinosusStreaked tenrec 2.6x[61] [63]
 Hemicentetes semispinosusStreaked tenrec2.7 x[100]
 Microgale dobsoniDobson’s long-tailed tenrec 5.6x[64]
 Microgale dobsoniDobson’s long-tailed tenrec5.6 x[100]
 Microgale talazaciTalazaci’s long-tailed tenrec 5.8x[64]
 Microgale talazaciTalazaci’s long-tailed tenrec5.8 x[100]
 Setifer setosusLarge Madagascar “hedgehog” 4.6x[100]
 Setifer setosusLarge Madagascar "hedgehog" 10.5x[143]
 Tenrec ecaudatusTailless tenrec 5.0x[100]
 Tenrec ecaudatusTenrec 6.3x[143]
 
Lagomorpha
LeporidaeLepus americanusSnowshoe rabbit5.0 x[92]
 Lepus californicusBlack-tailed jack rabbit 6.8x[60]
 Lepus europaeusEuropean hare12.0 x[100]
 Lepus europaeusEuropean hare 7.4x[143]
 Lepus timidusMountain hare9.0 x[100]
 Oryctolagus cuniculusOld World rabbit10.0 x[100]
 Oryctolagus cuniculusOld World rabbit9.0 x[101]
 Oryctolagus cuniculusOld World rabbit (+)18.0 x[21]
 Sylvilagus floridanusEastern cottontail (+)5.09.0x[280]
OchotonidaeOchotona collarisCollared pika6.0 x[100]
 Ochotona princepsN. American pika6.0 x[100]
 Ochotona princepsN. American pika7.0 x[192] [210]
 Ochotona pusillaSmall pika4.0 x[100]
 
Macroscelidea
MacroscelididaeElephantulus rozettiN. African elephant shrew (+) 3.0x[100]
 Elephantulus rufescensRufous elephant shrew6.01.6x[100]
 Elephantulus intufiLong-eared elephant shrew 8.8x[143]
 Elephantulus myurusLong-eared elephant shrew1.1 f[297]
 Rhynchocyon chrysopygusGolden-rumped elephant shrew4.0 x[100]
 
Marsupialia
BurramyidaeAcrobates pygmaeusPygmy gliding possum 7.2x[143]
 Acrobates pygmaeusPygmy gliding possum (+)4.0 x[100]
 Burramys parvusMountain pygmy possum4.07.0x[100] [229]
 Cercartetus nanusDormouse possum 8.0x[44]
 Distoechurus pennatusFeather-tailed possum 1.5x[44] [332]
[336]
DasyuridaeAntechinomys lanigerKultarr 3.0x[44]
 Antechinus flavipesYellow-footed marsupial mouse1.0 m[100]
 Antechinus flavipesYellow-footed marsupial mouse2.0 f[100]
 Antechinus spp.Broad-footed marsupial mouse (+) 3.0f[44]
 Antechinus spp.Broad-footed marsupial mouse 2.7m[261]
 Antechinus stuartiiBrown antechinus0.9 m[192] [261]
 Antechinus stuartiiBrown antechinus3.0 f[192] [261]
 Dasycercus cristicaudaMulgara (+)6.0 x[100]
 Dasycercus cristicaudaMulgara (+) 6.0x[304]
 Dasykaluta rosamondae  3.0f[304]
 Dasyuroides byrneiKowari4.06.3x[143]
 Dasyurus albopunctatusQuoll 3.0x[143]
 Dasyurus geoffroiiQuoll 3.0x[7]
 Dasyurus maculatusQuoll 4.0x[44]
 Dasyurus viverrinusQuoll 6.8x[143]
 Dasyurus viverrinusQuoll5.0 x[100]
 Ningaui timealeyiPilbara ningaui2.0 x[100]
 Ningaui spp.Ningaui 2.1f[229]
 Parantechinus apicalisSpeckled marsupial mouse3.0 x[100]
 Parantechinus bilarniSandstone marsupial mouse3.0 x[100]
 Phascogale tapoatafaTuan (+) 3.0m[48] [304]
 Pseudoantechinus macdonnellensisFat-tailed marsupial mouse (+)1.0 x[100]
 Sarcophilus harrisiiTasmanian devil8.0 x[100]
 Sarcophilus harrisiiTasmanian devil 8.2x[143]
 Sarcophilus harrisiiTasmanian devil7.0 x[192]
 Sminthopsis crassicaudataFat-tailed dunnart1.5 f[219]
 Sminthopsis crassicaudataFat-tailed dunnart1.3 m[219]
 Sminthopsis macrouraStripe-faced dunnart 4.9x[143]
DidelphidaeCaluromys lanigerWoolly opossum 5.0x[100]
 Caluromys philanderWoolly opossum 6.3x[143]
 Caluromysiops irruptaBlack-shouldered opossum 7.8x[44]
 Chironectes minimusWater opossum (yapok) 2.9x[44]
 Didelphis spp.Large American opossum3.05.0x[44] [126]
[191] [280]
[314]
 Didelphis spp.Large American opossum7.02.0x[100]
 Lutreolina crassicaudataThick-tailed opossum 3.0x[44]
 Marmosa mexicanaMurine opossum 7.0x[100]
 Marmosa spp.Murine (mouse) opossum (+)1.03.0x[126]
 Metachirus nudicaudatusBrown "four-eyed" opossum 4.0x[126]
 Monodelphis domesticaShorttailed opossum 6.0x[100]
 Philander mcilhennyiBlack "four-eyed" opossum 2.3x[44]
 Philander opossumGray "four-eyed" opossum 2.3x[44]
MacropodidaeBettongia gaimardiShort-nosed "rat"-kangaroo 11.8x[143]
 Caloprymnus campestrisDesert "rat"-kangaroo 13.0x[143]
 Dendrolagus dorianusDoria’s tree kangaroo8.0 x[100]
 Dendrolagus goodfellowGoodfellow’s tree kangaroo8.0 x[100]
 Dendrolagus inustusGrizzled tree kangaroo10.0 x[100]
 Dendrolagus matschieiMatschie’s tree kangaroo 14.0x[44]
 Dendrolagus matschieiMatschie’s tree kangaroo8.0 x[100]
 Dendrolagus ursinusBlack tree kangaroo 20.2x[44]
 Dendrolagus ursinusBlack tree kangaroo8.0 x[100]
 Dorcopsis veterumNew Guinean forest wallaby 7.6x[143]
 Dorcopsis spp.Forest wallaby (+)8.0 x[100]
 Lagostrophus fasciatusBanded hare-wallaby (+)4.0 x[100]
 Macropus agilisAgile wallaby 10.2x[44] [143]
[162]
 Macropus agilisAgile wallaby (+)10.0 x[100]
 Macropus antilopinusAntilopine wallaroo 15.9x[44] [143]
[162]
 Macropus antilopinusAntilopine wallaroo (+)16.0 x[100]
 Macropus dorsalisBlack-striped wallaby 12.4x[44] [143]
[162]
 Macropus dorsalisBlack-striped scrub wallaby15.0 x[100]
 Macropus eugeniiTammar wallaby 9.8x[44] [143]
[162]
 Macropus eugeniiTammar wallaby14.0 x[100]
 Macropus fuliginosusWestern gray kangaroo20.0 x[100]
 Macropus giganteusEastern gray kangaroo20.0 x[100]
 Macropus giganteusEastern gray kangaroo19.824.0x[162] [196]
 Macropus parmaParma wallaby8.0 x[100]
 Macropus parmaParma wallaby7.0 x[162] [196]
 Macropus parryiWhiptail wallaby 9.7x[44] [143]
[162]
 Macropus parryiPretty-faced wallaby (+)10.0 x[100]
 Macropus robustusWallaroo18.519.6x[100] [162]
[196]
 Macropus rufogriseusRed-necked wallaby15.0 x[100]
 Macropus rufogriseusRed-necked wallaby18.515.2x[162] [196]
 Macropus rufusRed kangaroo30.0 x[21]
 Macropus rufusRed kangaroo20.0 x[100]
 Macropus rufusRed kangaroo22.016.3x[162] [196]
 Onychogalea spp.Nailtail wallaby (+)7.0 x[100]
 Onychogalea spp.Nailtail wallaby 7.3x[143]
 Petrogale penicillataRock wallaby 14.4x[44]
 Petrogale spp.Rock wallaby14.4 x[100]
 Potorous tridactylesPotoroo7.312.0x[103] [304]
 Setonix brachyurusQuokka 5.0x[100]
 Setonix brachyurusQuokka (+)10.07.0f[287]
 Setonix brachyurusQuokka (+)10.0 m[287]
 Thylogale billardieriiTasmanian red-bellied pademelon 8.8x[44] [100]
 Wallabia bicolorSwamp wallaby15.012.4x[44]
 Wallabia bicolorSwamp wallaby (+)12.0 x[100]
MicrobiotheriidaeDromiciops australisMonito del monte 2.2f[248]
MyrmecobiidaeMyrmecobius fasciatusBanded anteater (+) 5.0m[303]
 Myrmecobius fasciatusBanded anteater (+) 6.0f[303]
NotoryctidaeNotorytes typhlopsMarsupial mole1.5 x[100]
PeramelidaeEchymipera spp.New Guinean spiny bandicoot 2.8x[143]
 Isoodon macrourusBrindled bandicoot3.0 x[192]
 Isoodon macrourusShort-nosed bandicoot1.0 x[100]
 Isoodon spp.Short-nosed bandicoot4.0 x[100]
 Isoodon spp.Short-nosed bandicoot 3.0x[301]
 Perameles gunniiLong-nosed bandicoot 3.0x[44]
 Perameles spp.Long-nosed bandicoot3.0 x[44]
 Peroryctes raffrayanusNew Guinean bandicoot 3.3x[143]
 Echymipera rufescensNew Guinean spiny bandicoot 2.9x[100]
PetauridaeDactylopsila spp.Striped possum 4.9x[143]
 Dactylopsila trivirgataStriped possum (+)5.0 x[100]
 Gymnobelideus leadbeateriLeadbeater’s possum 9.0f[295]
 Gymnobelideus leadbeateriLeadbeater’s possum7.5 m[295]
 Petauroides volansGreater gliding possum 15.0x[44]
 Petauroides volansGreater glider (+)6.0 x[100]
 Petaurus australisFluffy glider 10.0x[44] [143]
 Petaurus australisFluffy glider (+)10.0 x[100]
 Petaurus brevicepsSugar glider 14.0x[44] [143]
 Petaurus brevicepsSugar glider14.0 x[100]
 Petaurus norfolcensisSquirrel glider 11.9x[44] [143]
 Pseudocheirus peregrinusRing-tailed possum5.08.0x[44]
PhalangeridaeSpilocuscus maculatusSpotted cuscus11.0 x[100]
 Spilocuscus spp.Spotted cuscus (+) 11.0x[304]
 Trichosurus caninusMountain brush-tailed possum17.0 x[304]
 Trichosurus caninusMountain brush-tailed possum12.0 m[100]
 Trichosurus caninusMountain brush-tailed possum17.0 f[100]
 Trichosurus vulpeculaBrush-tailed possum13.0 x[100]
 Trichosurus vulpeculaBrush-tailed possum13.014.7x[143] [304]
 Wyulda squamicaudataScaly-tailed possum 4.3x[44]
 Wyulda squamicaudataScaly-tailed possum (+) 6.0x[100]
PhascolarctidaePhascolarctos cinereusKoala17.020.0x[143]
 Phascolarctos cinereusKoala13.018.0x[192]
 Phascolarctos cinereusKoala (+) 15.0x[100]
PotoroidaeAepyprymnus rufescensRufous “rat”-kangaroo (+)6.0 x[100]
 Aepyprymnus rufescensRufous “rat”-kangaroo (+) 8.0x[44]
 Bettongia spp.Bettong6.0 x[100]
 Potorous spp.Potoroo12.07.0x[100]
PseudocheiridaeHemibelideus lemuroidesLemuroid ringtail possum (+)4.0 x[100]
 Pseudocheirus peregrinusCommon ringtail possum6.0 x[100]
TarsipedidaeTarsipes rostratusHoney possum2.0 x[192]
 Tarsipes spenseraeHoney possum (+)1.0 x[100]
ThylacinidaeThylacinus cynocephalusTasmanian wolf 8.4x[44]
 Thylacinus cynocephalusTasmanian wolf 13.0x[100]
ThylacomyidaeMacrotis lagotisRabbit-bandicoot 5.0x[100]
 Macrotis lagotisRabbit-bandicoot 7.2x[44]
VombatidaeLasiorhinus latifronsSouthern hairy-nosed wombat 20.0x[100]
 Lasiorhinus latifronsHairy-nosed wombat 24.5x[143]
 Lasiorhinus latifronsSouthern hairy-nosed wombat 18.0x[192]
 Vombatus ursinusCommon wombat26.0 x[21]
 Vombatus ursinusCommon wombat 26.1x[44]
 Vombatus ursinusCommon wombat5.026.0x[100] [192]
 
Monotremata
OrnithorhynchidaeOrnithorhynchus anatinusDuck-billed platypus17.0 x[21]
 Ornithorhynchus anatinusDuck-billed platypus 17.0x[101]
 Ornithorhynchus anatinusDuck-billed platypus 17.0x[100]
 Ornithorhynchus anatinusDuck-billed platypus 17.0x[143]
TachyglosidaeTachyglossus aculeatusShort-nosed echidna (+) 50.0x[96]
 Tachyglossus aculeatusShort-nosed echidna 49.4x[100]
 Zaglossus bruijniLong-nosed echidna 30.7x[96]
 Zaglossus bruijniLong-nosed echidna 31.0x[100]
 
Perissodactyla
EquidaeEquus asinusAfrican wild ass20.0 x[100]
 Equus asinusAfrican wild ass 47.0x[331]
 Equus burchelli (= quagga)Burchell’s zebra 40.0x[99] [160]
 Equus caballusHorse 50.0x[15] [326]
[331]
 Equus caballusHorse62.0 x[21]
 Equus grevyiGrevy’s zebra20.0 x[100]
 Equus grevyiGrevy’s zebra 22.0x[160] [163]
[229]
 Equus hemionusOnager20.0 x[100]
 Equus hemionusOnager 38.8x[143]
 Equus quaggaPlains zebra (Quagga)20.0 x[100]
 Equus zebraMountain zebra20.0 x[100]
 Equus zebraMountain zebra24.0 f[239]
RhinocerotidaeCeratotherium simumWhite rhinoceros36.0 f[98] [160]
[234] [235]
[297]
 Ceratotherium simumWhite rhinoceros50.0 x[98] [160]
[234] [235]
[297]
 Ceratotherium simumWhite rhinoceros45.0 x[100] [192]
 Dicerorhinus sumatrensisSumatran rhinoceros35.0 x[100]
 Dicerorhinus sumatrensisSumatran rhinoceros 32.7x[143]
 Dicerorhinus sumatrensisSumatran rhinoceros32.0 x[192]
 Diceros bicornisBlack rhinoceros (+) 45.0x[143]
 Diceros bicornisBlack rhinoceros40.0 x[100] [192]
 Rhinoceros sondaicuJavan rhinoceros40.0 x[100]
 Rhinoceros sondaicusJavan rhinoceros 21.0x[170] [172]
 Rhinoceros unicornisIndian rhinoceros49.0 x[21]
 Rhinoceros unicornisIndian rhinoceros40.0 x[100]
 Rhinoceros unicornisGreater Indian rhinoceros 47.0x[172]
 Rhinoceros unicornisIndian rhinoceros45.0 x[192]
TapiridaeTapirus indicusMalayan tapir30.0 x[192]
 Tapirus terrestrisBrazilian tapir30.0 x[100] [192]
 Tapirus terrestrisBrazilian tapir35.0 x[21]
 Tapirus terrestrisBrazilian tapir 35.0x[143]
 
Pholidota
ManidaeManis crassicaudataPangolin 13.5x[143]
 Manis crassicaudataPangolin 13.0x[192]
 
Pinnipedia
OdobenidaeOdobenus rosmarusWalrus16.8 x[21]
 Odobenus rosmarusWalrus (+)40.0 x[68] [69]
[70] [192]
 Odobenus rosmarusWalrus40.0 x[192]
 Odobenus rosmarusWalrus40.0 x[100]
OtariidaeArctocephalus galapagoensisSouthern fur seal22.0 f[42]
 Arctocephalus gazellaAntarctic fur seal (+)13.0 m[192]
 Arctocephalus gazellaAntarctic fur seal23.0 f[192]
 Arctocephalus pusillusSouthern fur seal18.0 x[157] [327]
 Callorhinus ursinusNorthern fur seal30.0 x[9]
 Callorhinus ursinusNorthern fur seal25.0 x[192]
 Eumetopias jubatusNorthern sea lion23.0 x[100]
 Eumetopias jubatusNorthern sea lion30.0 f[157] [189]
[279]
 Otaria byroniaS. American sea lion20.0 x[100]
 Otaria flavescensSouthern sea lion 24.8x[143]
 Zalophus californianusCalifornia sea lion17.0 x[100]
 Zalophus californianusCalifornia sea lion 30.0x[157]
PhocidaeCystophora cristataHooded seal35.0 x[23]
 Cystophora cristataHooded seal34.0 m[192]
 Cystophora cristataHooded seal (+)35.0 f[192]
 Erignathus barbatusBearded seal31.0 x[33] [157]
 Erignathus barbatusBearded seal25.0 m[192]
 Erignathus barbatusBearded seal31.0 f[192]
 Halichoerus grypusGray seal (+)46.0 x[21] [198]
 Halichoerus grypusGray seal (+)40.0 x[100]
 Halichoerus grypusGray seal31.043.0m[192]
 Halichoerus grypusGray seal46.0 f[192]
 Hydrurga leptonyxLeopard seal26.0 x[100] [157]
[166] [291]
 Hydrurga leptonyxLeopard seal (+)23.0 m[192]
 Hydrurga leptonyxLeopard seal (+)26.0 f[192]
 Leptonychotes weddelliWeddell seal21.0 m[192]
 Leptonychotes weddelliWeddell seal25.0 f[192]
 Leptonychotes weddelliWeddell seal25.0 x[100] [198]
 Lobodon carcinophagusCrabeater seal23.0 x[100]
 Lobodon carcinophagusCrabeater seal39.0 x[157] [165]
 Lobodon carcinophagusCrabeater seal36.0 f[192]
 Lobodon carcinophagusCrabeater seal (+)30.0 m[192]
 Mirounga angustirostrisNorthern elephant seal14.015.0x[143]
 Mirounga angustirostrisNorthern elephant seal14.0 m[192]
 Mirounga angustirostrisNorthern elephant seal14.0 f[192]
 Mirounga leoninaSouthern elephant seal20.0 x[100]
 Mirounga leoninaSouthern elephant seal20.0 m[192]
 Mirounga leoninaSouthern elephant seal18.0 f[192]
 Mirounga leoninaSouthern elephant seal23.0 x[118]
 Monachus monachusMediterranean monk seal 23.7x[143]
 Monachus schauinslandiHawaiian monk seal30.0 x[154] [157]
[192]
 Ommatophoca rossiRoss seal21.0 x[157] [254]
 Ommatophoca rossiRoss seal21.0 m[192]
 Ommatophoca rossiRoss seal19.0 f[192]
 Pagophilus groenlandicusHarp seal (+)30.0 x[100]
 Phoca caspicaCaspian seal35.0 x[100]
 Phoca caspicaCaspian seal50.0 x[157]
 Phoca caspicaCaspian seal47.0 m[192]
 Phoca caspicaCaspian seal50.0 f[192]
 Phoca fasciataRibbon seal30.0 x[34] [157]
 Phoca fasciataRibbon seal31.0 m[192]
 Phoca fasciataRibbon seal23.0 f[192]
 Phoca groenlandicaHarp seal (+)30.0 m[157] [264]
 Phoca groenlandicaHarp seal (+)30.0 f[157] [192]
[264]
 Phoca groenlandicaHarp seal29.0 m[192]
 Phoca hispidaRinged seal46.0 x[100]
 Phoca hispidaRinged seal43.0 m[192]
 Phoca hispidaRinged seal40.0 f[192]
 Phoca hispidaRinged seal43.0 x[82] [157]
 Phoca larghaSpotted seal32.0 x[19] [157]
[198]
 Phoca larghaSpotted seal35.0 x[100]
 Phoca larghaSpotted seal29.0 m[192]
 Phoca larghaSpotted seal32.0 f[192]
 Phoca sibiricaBaikal seal56.0 x[157] [309]
 Phoca sibiricaBaikal seal52.0 m[192]
 Phoca sibiricaBaikal seal56.0 f[192]
 Phoca vitulinaHarbor seal40.0 x[100]
 Phoca vitulinaHarbor seal26.0 m[192]
 Phoca vitulinaHarbor seal32.0 f[192]
 Phoca vitulinaHarbor seal34.0 x[233]
 
Primates
CallimiconidaeCallimico goeldiiGoeldi’s monkey (+) 9.0x[100]
 Callimico goeldiiGoeldi’s monkey 17.9x[104]
 Callimico goeldiiGoeldi’s monkey 16.1f[104]
 Callimico goeldiiGoeldi’s monkey (+) 15.8m[104]
 Callimico goeldiiGoeldi’s marmoset 10.9x[143]
CallitrichidaeCallithrix argentataBare-eared marmoset 16.8f[104]
 Callithrix argentataBare-eared marmoset 8.8x[104]
 Callithrix humeraliferTassel-eared marmoset 15.0x[104]
 Callithrix jacchusCommon marmoset (+)10.0 x[100]
 Callithrix jacchusCommon marmoset (+) 16.8m[104]
 Callithrix jacchusCommon marmoset (+) 15.7x[104]
 Callithrix jacchusCommon marmoset 12.0x[223]
 Callithrix jacchusCommon marmoset10.016.0x[229]
 Cebuella pygmaeaPygmy marmoset (+)10.0 x[100]
 Cebuella pygmaeaPygmy marmoset (+) 15.1f[104]
 Cebuella pygmaeaPygmy marmoset 11.5x[143]
 Leontopithecus rosaliaGolden lion marmoset (+) 24.8m[104]
 Leontopithecus rosaliaGolden lion marmoset 22.0f[104]
 Leontopithecus spp.Lion tamarin (+) 15.0x[229]
 Saguinus fuscicollisSaddle-back tamarin 24.5f[104]
 Saguinus fuscicollisSaddle-back tamarin 20.4f[104]
 Saguinus imperatorLong-tusked tamarin 20.2m[104]
 Saguinus imperatorLong-tusked tamarin 13.0m[104]
 Saguinus imperatorLong-tusked tamarin (+) 17.9x[143]
 Saguinus nigricollisBlack and red tamarin (+)10.0 x[100]
 Saguinus nigricollisBlack and red tamarin 15.2f[104]
 Saguinus nigricollisBlack and red tamarin 11.1x[104]
 Saguinus oedipusCotton top tamarin (+) 23.1m[104]
 Saguinus oedipusCotton top tamarin (+) 23.0x[104]
 Saguinus tamarin  13.2f[104]
 Saguinus tamarin  15.4m[104]
CebidaeAlouatta carayaBlack and gold howler 20.3 [104]
 Alouatta carayaBlack and gold howler 20.0 [104]
 Alouatta palliataMantled howler (+)20.0 x[38] [81]
[100] [269]
 Alouatta palliataMantled howler (+)25.0  [104]
 Alouatta seniculusRed howler25.0  [269]
 Alouatta villosaGuatemalan howler (+)20.0 x[125]
 Aotus spp.Night monkey 18.5x[143]
 Aotus trivirgatusNight/owl monkey12.0 x[100]
 Aotus trivirgatusNight/owl monkey 25.3 [104]
 Aotus trivirgatusNight/owl monkey 19.3 [104]
 Aotus trivirgatusNight/owl monkey 18.5x[143]
 Aotus trivirgatusNight/owl monkey20.0  [269]
 Ateles belzebuthWhite-bellied spider monkey 28.0 [104]
 Ateles belzebuthWhite-bellied spider monkey 26.0m[104]
 Ateles belzebuthWhite-bellied spider monkey 26.0f[104]
 Ateles fuscicepsBrown-headed spider monkey 21.5 [104]
 Ateles fuscicepsBrown-headed spider monkey 24.0 [269]
 Ateles paniscusBlack spider monkey (+)20.0 x[100]
 Ateles paniscusBlack spider monkey (+) 37.8f[104]
 Ateles paniscusBlack spider monkey (+) 34.0f[104]
 Ateles spp.Spider monkey 33.0x[143]
 Cacajao calvusBald uakari (+)18.0 x[100]
 Cacajao calvusBald uakari 22.3f[104]
 Cacajao calvusBald uakari (+) 19.9x[104]
 Cacajao calvusBald uakari (+) 20.5x[143]
 Cacajao melanocephalusBlack-headed uakari (+)12.0 x[100]
 Cacajao melanocephalusBlack-headed uakari (+) 18.0x[104]
 Cacajao (calvus) rubicundusBald uakari (+) 27.0m[104]
 Cacajao (calvus) rubicundusBald uakari (+) 23.0f[104]
 Callicebus molochDusky titi (+) 25.3m[104]
 Callicebus molochDusky titi (+) 20.3f[104]
 Callicebus molochDusky titi 12.0x[143]
 Cebus albifronsWhite-fronted capuchin (+)40.0 x[100]
 Cebus albifronsWhite-fronted capuchin (+) 44.0x[104]
 Cebus albifronsWhite-fronted capuchin 40.5f[104]
 Cebus albifronsWhite-fronted capuchin 25.0m[104]
 Cebus apellaBrown capuchin (+)40.0 x[100]
 Cebus apellaBrown capuchin 45.1m[104]
 Cebus apellaBrown capuchin 41.0m[104]
 Cebus apellaCapuchin 44.6x[143]
 Cebus capucinusWhite-faced capuchin 47.0x[100]
 Cebus capucinusWhite-faced capuchin 54.8m[104]
 Cebus capucinusWhite-faced capuchin 46.9m[104] [143]
 Cebus capucinusWhite-faced capuchin (+) 40.0x[142]
 Cebus nigrivittatusWeeper capuchin (+)30.0 x[100]
 Cebus nigrivittatusWeeper capuchin (+) 41.0f[104]
 Chiropotes albinasusWhite-nosed saki (+)17.0 x[100]
 Chiropotes albinasusWhite-nosed saki (+) 11.7f[104]
 Chiropotes satanasBearded saki (+)18.0 x[100]
 Chiropotes satanasBearded saki 15.0f[104]
 Chiropotes satanasBearded saki 12.7m[104]
 Chiropotes satanasBearded saki 15.0x[223]
 Lagothrix lagotrichaWoolly monkey 25.0x[100]
 Lagothrix lagotrichaWoolly monkey 30.0f[104]
 Lagothrix lagotrichaWoolly monkey 25.9x[104]
 Lagothrix lagotrichaWoolly monkey 24.8m[143]
 Pithecia aequatorialisSaki 14.9x[143]
 Pithecia monachusRed-bearded saki (+) 14.0x[100]
 Pithecia monachusRed-bearded saki 24.6f[104]
 Pithecia pitheciaWhite-faced saki (+)14.0 x[100]
 Pithecia pitheciaWhite-faced saki (+) 20.7m[104]
 Pithecia pitheciaWhite-faced saki (+) 18.0m[104]
 Pithecia pitheciaWhite-faced saki (+) 18.0f[104]
 Saimiri sciureusCommon squirrel monkey21.0 x[100]
 Saimiri sciureusCommon squirrel monkey 27.0f[104]
 Saimiri sciureusCommon squirrel monkey 22.7m[104]
 Saimiri sciureusCommon squirrel monkey 21.0x[223]
 Saimiri spp.Squirrel monkey (+) 15.3x[143]
CercopithecidaeAllenopithecus nigroviridisAllen’s monkey (+)23.0 x[100]
 Cercocebus (= Lophocebus) aterrimusBlack mangabey 26.8m[104]
 Cercocebus albigenaGray-cheeked mangabey21.0 x[110]
 Cercocebus albigenaGray-cheeked mangabey 32.7x[143]
 Cercocebus atysSooty mangabey 26.8m[104]
 Cercocebus atysSooty mangabey18.0 x[110]
 Cercocebus galeritusTana River mangabey (+) 21.0f[104]
 Cercocebus galeritusTana River mangabey 19.0x[269]
 Cercocebus torquatusCollared mangabey (+)30.0 x[100]
 Cercocebus torquatusCollared mangabey (+) 14.7f[104]
 Cercocebus torquatusCollared mangabey20.5 x[110]
 Cercocebus torquatusCollared mangabey (+) 27.0x[269]
 Cercopithecus (= Chlorocebus) aethiopsVervet (+)30.0 x[100]
 Cercopithecus (= Chlorocebus) aethiopsVervet (+) 23.0m[104]
 Cercopithecus (= Chlorocebus) aethiopsVervet (+) 31.6m[104]
 Cercopithecus (= Chlorocebus) aethiopsVervet31.0 x[110]
 Cercopithecus ascaniusRed-tailed guenon 28.3f[104]
 Cercopithecus ascaniusRed-tailed guenon 25.9f[104]
 Cercopithecus campbelliCampbell’s guenon (+) 25.0f[104]
 Cercopithecus campbelliGuenon (+) 33.0x[143]
 Cercopithecus cephusMustached guenon (+) 23.0m[104]
 Cercopithecus cephusMustached guenon (+) 23.0f[104]
 Cercopithecus dianaDiana monkey 19.0x[100]
 Cercopithecus dianaDiana monkey 37.3f[104]
 Cercopithecus dianaDiana monkey (+) 30.0f[104]
 Cercopithecus dianaDiana monkey34.8 x[110]
 Cercopithecus dianaDiana monkey 34.8x[142]
 Cercopithecus hamlyniOwl-faced monkey 27.0m[104]
 Cercopithecus l'hoestiL’hoest’s monkey (+) 16.0x[100]
 Cercopithecus mitisBlue monkey (+) 27.1f[104]
 Cercopithecus mitisBlue monkey (+) 25.0f[104]
 Cercopithecus monaMona monkey (+)30.0 x[100]
 Cercopithecus monaMona monkey (+) 20.5f[104]
 Cercopithecus monaMona monkey 22.0x[269]
 Cercopithecus neglectusDe Brazza’s monkey 26.3f[104]
 Cercopithecus neglectusDe Brazza’s monkey 23.0f[104]
 Cercopithecus nictitansGreater spot-nosed monkey 23.0f[104]
 Cercopithecus nictitansGreater spot-nosed monkey 18.9m[104]
 Cercopithecus petauristaLesser spot-nosed guenon (+) 19.0x[104]
 Cercopithecus petauristaLesser spot-nosed guenon (+) 16.7f[104]
 Cercopithecus pogoniasCrowned guenon 24.1f[104]
 Cercopithecus pogoniasCrowned guenon 18.5f[104]
 Colobus guerezaGuereza 24.0x[100]
 Colobus guerezaGuereza 24.5m[104]
 Colobus guerezaGuereza 23.8f[104]
 Colobus polykomosWestern black and white colobus (+) 27.5x[115]
 Colobus polykomosWestern black and white colobus (+) 23.0x[100]
 Colobus polykomosWestern black and white colobus 24.0m[104]
 Colobus polykomosWestern black and white colobus26.0 x[110]
 Colobus polykomosWestern black and white colobus30.5 x[269]
 Erythrocebus patasPatas monkey (+)21.0 x[100]
 Erythrocebus patasPatas monkey 23.9f[104]
 Erythrocebus patasPatas monkey 21.7f[104]
 Erythrocebus patasPatas monkey 21.6x[143]
 Macaca arctoidesStump-tailed macaque (+) 24.0f[104]
 Macaca arctoidesStump-tailed macaque (+) 20.1f[104]
 Macaca arctoidesStump-tailed macaque (+)30.0 x[110]
 Macaca fascicularisCrab-eating monkey 38.0x[100]
 Macaca fascicularisCrab-eating monkey 25.0f[104]
 Macaca fascicularisCrab-eating macaque 37.1x[143]
 Macaca fuscataJapanese macaque 32.0f[71]
 Macaca fuscataJapanese macaque 27.0m[71]
 Macaca fuscataJapanese macaque (+)30.0 x[100]
 Macaca fuscataJapanese macaque 33.0x[104]
 Macaca fuscataJapanese macaque (+) 22.7f[104]
 Macaca mulattaRhesus macaque (+)30.0 x[100]
 Macaca mulattaRhesus macaque (+) 26.0x[104]
 Macaca mulattaRhesus macaque (+) 23.0f[104]
 Macaca mulattaRhesus macaque 36.0x[104]
 Macaca mulattaRhesus macaque 35.0x[104]
 Macaca nemestrinaPig-tailed macaque (+)30.0 x[100]
 Macaca nemestrinaPig-tailed macaque (+) 34.3x[104]
 Macaca nemestrinaPig-tailed macaque 27.1m[104]
 Macaca radiataBonnet macaque (+)20.0 x[100]
 Macaca silenusLion-tailed macaque (+)30.0 x[100]
 Macaca silenusLion-tailed macaque 40.0f[104]
 Macaca silenusLion-tailed macaque 38.0m[104]
 Macaca sinicaToque macaque 35.0x[76]
 Macaca sinicaToque macaque 29.3x[104]
 Macaca sinicaToque macaque30.0 x[269]
 Macaca sylvanusBarbary ape (+)20.0 x[100]
 Macaca sylvanusBarbary ape (+) 17.0m[104]
 Macaca sylvanusBarbary ape22.0 x[269]
 Mandrillus leucophaeusDrill 33.4f[104]
 Mandrillus leucophaeusDrill 28.4x[104]
 Mandrillus leucophaeusDrill 28.6x[110]
 Mandrillus sphinxMandrill 46.0x[100] [116]
 Mandrillus sphinxMandrill 31.7f[104]
 Miopithecus talapoinTalapoin 27.7x[143]
 Miopithecus talapoinTalapoin28.0 x[100]
 Miopithecus talapoinDwarf guenon (Talapoin) 30.9m[104]
 Miopithecus talapoinDwarf guenon (Talapoin) (+) 23.1m[104]
 Miopithecus talapoinDwarf guenon (Talapoin) 27.7x[143]
 Nasalis larvatusProboscis monkey 13.6x[97]
 Nasalis larvatusProboscis monkey 21.0m[104]
 Nasalis larvatusProboscis monkey (+) 20.0f[104]
 Papio anubisOlive baboon 25.2m[104]
 Papio cynocephalusYellow baboon45.0 x[100]
 Papio cynocephalusYellow baboon (+) 35.1f[104]
 Papio cynocephalusYellow baboon 27.7x[104]
 Papio cynocephalusYellow baboon40.0 x[269]
 Papio hamadryasHamadryas baboon (+)37.0 x[100]
 Papio hamadryasHamadryas baboon 37.5m[104] [229]
 Papio hamadryasHamadryas baboon 35.6x[104] [143]
 Papio hamadryasHamadryas baboon 28.8x[104]
 Papio papioGuinea baboon 27.0m[104]
 Papio papioGuinea baboon 25.8x[104]
 Papio papioGuinea baboon 40.0x[269]
 Papio ursinusChacma baboon (+) 31.2f[104]
 Papio ursinusChacma baboon 27.6x[104]
 Papio ursinusChacma baboon 45.0x[229]
 Presbytis (= Trachypithecus) obscuraSpectacled leaf monkey(+) 25.0x[104]
 Presbytis (= Trachypithecus) obscuraSpectacled leaf monkey(+) 15.3f[104]
 Presbytis (= Trachypithecus) cristataSilvered langur 31.1f[104]
 Presbytis (= Trachypithecus) cristataSilvered langur 18.8m[104]
 Presbytis (= Semnopithecus) entellusHanuman langur (+) 25.0f[100] [104]
 Presbytis (= Semnopithecus) entellusHanuman langur (+) 24.0m[104]
 Semnopithecus (= Presbytis) entellusHanuman langur (+) 25.0x[229]
 Presbytis melalophosMitered leaf monkey 16.0x[104]
 Presbytis senex (= Trachypithecus vetulus)Purple-faced leaf monkey (+) 23.0m[104]
 Pygathrix nemaeusRed-shanked douc langur (+) 25.0m[104]
 Pygathrix nemaeusRed-shanked douc langur (+) 21.0m[104]
 Theropithecus geladaGelada (+)20.0 x[100]
 Theropithecus geladaGelada (+) 28.0f[104]
 Theropithecus geladaGelada (+) 27.0f[104]
 Theropithecus geladaGelada (+) 20.8x[143]
 Trachypithecus spp.Leaf monkey 23.7x[143]
CheirogaleidaeCheirogaleus majorGreater dwarf lemur 15.0x[192]
 Cheirogaleus majorGreater dwarf lemur 15.0x[100]
 Cheirogaleus majorGreater dwarf lemur 10.0f[104]
 Cheirogaleus majorGreater dwarf lemur 8.7x[104]
 Cheirogaleus mediusFat-tailed dwarf lemur 18.0x[100]
 Cheirogaleus mediusFat-tailed dwarf lemur 19.3m[104]
 Cheirogaleus mediusFat-tailed dwarf lemur 17.0f[104]
 Cheirogaleus mediusFat-tailed dwarf lemur 18.0x[192]
 Cheirogaleus spp.Dwarf lemur (+) 8.3x[143]
 Microcebus murinusGray lesser mouse lemur 14.0x[192]
 Microcebus rufusBrown lesser mouse lemur 12.0x[192]
 Mirza coquereliCoquerel’s dwarf lemur 15.3x[104] [143]
DaubentoniidaeDaubentonia madagascariensisAye-aye 23.3x[143]
 Daubentonia madagascariensisAye-aye (+) 23.0x[100]
 Daubentonia madagascariensisAye-aye 24.3x[104]
 Daubentonia madagascariensisAye-aye (+) 5.4f[104]
HominidaeHomo sapiensHuman (+) 116.0x[21]
 Homo sapiensHuman (+) 100.0x[229]
 Homo sapiensHuman 122.5f[5]
HylobatidaeHylobates agilisAgile gibbon25.0 x[100]
 Hylobates agilisAgile gibbon (+) 44.0m[104]
 Hylobates agilisAgile gibbon (+) 28.0f[104]
 Hylobates concolorConcolor gibbon 44.1x[104]
 Hylobates concolorConcolor gibbon (+) 25.0f[104]
 Hylobates larLar gibbon 31.5x[142]
 Hylobates larLar gibbon25.0 x[192]
 Hylobates larLar gibbon (+) 40.0m[104]
 Hylobates larLar gibbon (+) 40.0f[104]
 Hylobates moloch muelleriGray gibbon25.0 x[100]
 Hylobates moloch muelleriGray gibbon (+) 29.0m[104]
 Hylobates moloch muelleriGray gibbon (+) 25.0f[104]
 Hylobates pileatusCapped gibbon25.0 x[100]
 Hylobates pileatusCapped gibbon 36.0m[104]
 Hylobates pileatusCapped gibbon (+) 31.0m[104]
 Hylobates pileatus x H. agilisGibbon hybrid 37.9f[104]
 Hylobates pileatus x H. agilisGibbon hybrid 34.7x[143]
 Hylobates syndactylusSiamang25.019.9x[41] [100]
 Hylobates syndactylusSiamang (+) 38.0f[104]
 Hylobates syndactylusSiamang 37.0m[104]
 Hylobates syndactylusSiamang30.0 x[192]
IndriidaePropithecus verreauxiSifaka 18.2x[143]
 Propithecus verreauxiVerreaux’s sifaka (+) 18.0x[100]
 Propithecus verreauxiVerreaux’s sifaka (+) 20.6m[104]
 Propithecus verreauxiVerreaux’s sifaka (+) 18.2f[104]
LemuridaeEulemur macaco X (Petterus fulvus)Captive hybrid lemur 39.0x[143]
 Hapalemur griseusGentle lemur 12.8m[100] [104]
[143]
 Hapalemur griseusGray gentle lemur (+) 17.1f[104]
 Hapalemur simusBroad-nosed gentle lemur 12.0x[100]
 Lemur fulvusBrown lemur 37.0m[104]
 Lemur fulvusBrown lemur 36.5f[104]
 Lemur fulvusBrown lemur 30.8x[142]
 Lemur cattaRing-tailed lemur (+) 20.0x[100]
 Lemur cattaRing-tailed lemur (+) 30.0f[104]
 Lemur cattaRing-tailed lemur (+) 26.0x[104]
 Lemur cattaRing-tailed lemur27.1 x[110]
 Lemur coronatusCrowned lemur 18.4x[104]
 Lemur macacoBlack lemur 30.0x[100]
 Lemur macacoBlack lemur 28.0f[104]
 Lemur macacoBlack lemur27.1 x[104]
 Lemur macacoBlack lemur 27.1f[223]
 Lemur mongozMongoose lemur 30.0x[100]
 Lemur mongozMongoose lemur (+) 27.9m[104]
 Lemur mongozMongoose lemur 24.3x[104]
 Microcebus coquerrelCoquerel’s mouse lemur 15.0x[100]
 Microcebus murinusLesser mouse lemur 15.5m[104]
 Microcebus murinusLesser mouse lemur (+) 14.0m[100] [104]
 Phaner furciferFork-marked lemur 12.0x[104]
 Varecia variegataRuffed lemur 19.0x[100] [229]
 Varecia variegataRuffed lemur 28.0m[104]
 Varecia variegataRuffed lemur (+) 32.0f[104]
LorisidaeArctocebus calabarensisGolden potto 12.2x[104]
 Arctocebus calabarensisGolden potto9.5 x[110]
 Arctocebus calabarensisGolden potto 13.0x[100] [143]
 Galago alleniAllen’s bush baby 12.0x[100] [192]
 Galago crassicaudatusGreater galago 15.0x[100]
 Galago crassicaudatusGreater galago 18.8m[104]
 Galago crassicaudatusGreater galago 14.0x[223]
 Galago demidoviiDwarf bush baby 9.4x[104]
 Galago demidoviiDwarf bush baby 9.2f[104]
 Galago demidoviiDwarf bush baby14.0 x[110]
 Galago demidoviiDwarf bush baby 12.0x[100] [192]
 Galago elegantulusNeedle-clawed bush baby 15.0x[100] [192]
 Galago senegalensisGalago (+) 17.0f[104]
 Galago senegalensisSenegal bush baby 16.5x[104] [143]
 Galago senegalensisLesser bush baby 14.0x[100] [192]
 Galagoides alleniDwarf galago (+) 8.0x[40] [320]
 Loris tardigradusSlender loris 15.0x[100]
 Loris tardigradusSlender loris (+) 14.0m[104]
 Loris tardigradusSlender loris 16.4m[104]
 Loris tardigradusSlender loris 12.4x[143] [229]
 Nycticebus coucangSlow loris 20.0f[100] [104]
 Nycticebus coucangSlow loris 26.5f[104]
 Nycticebus sppSlow loris14.0 x[229]
 Otolemur garnettiiGreater bush baby (+) 14.0x[55] [131]
[160] [224]
[297] [320]
 Otolemur garnettiiGreater bush baby (+) 15.7m[104]
 Otolemur garnettiiGreater bush baby 15.0f[104]
 Perodicticus pottoPotto (+) 22.0x[100]
 Perodicticus pottoPotto 26.0m[104]
 Perodicticus pottoPotto 22.0m[143]
 Perodicticus pottoPotto 15.0x[192]
MegaladapidaeLepilemur mustilinusSportive lemur 12.0x[100]
 Lepilemur spp.Sportive lemur 8.6x[143]
PongidaeGorilla gorillaGorilla50.054.0x[21] [104]
[229]
 Gorilla gorillaGorilla (+)47.040.0x[100]
 Gorilla gorillaGorilla 47.0f[104]
 Gorilla gorillaGorilla (+) 39.3x[142]
 Gorilla gorilla gorillaLowland gorilla 36.0x[141]
 Pan paniscusPygmy chimpanzee (+)20.0 x[100]
 Pan paniscusPygmy chimpanzee (+) 48.0f[236]
 Pan paniscusPygmy chimpanzee (+) 35.0m[236]
 Pan troglodytesChimpanzee51.0 x[21]
 Pan troglodytesChimpanzee (+)50.040.0x[100]
 Pan troglodytesChimpanzee 56.0m[104]
 Pan troglodytesChimpanzee 59.4f[104]
 Pan troglodytesChimpanzee (+) 44.5x[142]
 Pan troglodytesChimpanzee60.053.0x[143]
 Pan troglodytesCommon chimpanzee45.0 x[192]
 Pongo pygmaeusOrangutan59.0 x[21]
 Pongo pygmaeusOrangutan35.050.0x[100] [192]
 Pongo pygmaeusOrangutan 59.0x[229]
 Pongo pygmaeusOrangutan 58.8m[104]
 Pongo pygmaeusOrangutan 57.3f[104]
TarsiidaeTarsius bancanusWestern tarsier8.0 x[100] [192]
 Tarsius spectrumSpectral tarsier 12.0x[110]
 Tarsius syrichtaPhilippine tarsier (+) 13.0x[100]
 Tarsius syrichtaTarsier 13.4x[143]
 Tarsius syrichtaPhilippine tarsier 12.0x[192]
 Tarsius syrichtaPhilippine tarsier 13.0x[100]
 Tarsius syrichtaPhilippine tarsier 15.0m[104]
 Tarsius syrichtaPhilippine tarsier 13.5m[104]
 
Proboscidea
ElephantidaeElephas maximusAsiatic elephant78.0 x[21]
 Elephas maximusAsian elephant40.069.0x[100]
 Elephas maximusAsian elephant60.080.0x[192]
 Elephas maximusAsiatic elephant 77.0x[288]
 Elephas maximusAsiatic elephant70.0 x[160] [173]
[220] [296]
 Loxodonta africanaAfrican elephant70.0 x[21] [100]
 Loxodonta africanaAfrican elephant60.080.0x[192]
 
Rodentia
AbrocomidaeAbrocoma bennettiChinchilla-rat 2.3x[143]
AnomaluridaePedetes capensisSpringhare 13.0x[100]
 Pedetes capensisSpringhare 14.5x[192]
AplodontidaeAplodontia rufaMountain beaver6.0 x[100]
 Aplodontia rufaMountain beaver 6.0x[190]
 Aplodontia rufaMountain beaver10.0 x[192]
BathyergidaeCryptomys spp.Common mole-rat 2.4x[143]
 Georychus capensisCape mole-rat3.0 x[308]
 Heliophobius argenteocinereusSilvery mole-rat (+) 3.1f[136]
 Heterocephalus glaberNaked mole-rat 5.0x[100] [135]
[137] [138]
[139]
 Heterocephalus glaberNaked mole-rat 10.0x[192]
CapromyidaeCapromys piloridesCuban hutia 11.3x[143]
 Geocapromys (= Capromys) browniiBrown’s hutia 8.3x[143]
 Geocapromys (= Capromys) ingrahamiBahamian hutia (+)6.0 x[100]
 Plagiodontia aediumHispaniolan hutia 9.9x[143]
CastoridaeCastor spp.Beaver24.0 x[29]
 Castor canadensisAmerican beaver (+)15.0 x[21]
 Castor fiberEuropean beaver17.025.0x[100]
CaviidaeCavia apera f. porcellusDomestic guinea pig5.010.0x[100]
 Cavia porcellusGuinea pig14.8 x[21]
 Cavia spp.Guinea pig 8.0x[229]
 Dolichotis patagonumPatagonian cavy 14.0x[101]
 Galea musteloidesYellow-toothed cavy1.31.8x[168] [265]
[329]
 Galea spixiiYellow-toothed cavy 4.6x[143]
 Kerodon rupestrisRock cavy 11.0x[262]
ChinchillidaeChinchilla chinchilla bolivianaShort-tailed chinchilla10.0 x[100]
 Chinchilla lanigeraChinchilla11.3 x[21]
 Chinchilla lanigeraLong-tailed chinchilla10.0 x[100]
 Chinchilla spp.Chinchilla (+)10.020.0x[229] [329]
 Lagidium peruanumMountain viscacha 19.5x[143]
 Lagostomus maximusPlains viscacha 9.4x[229]
 Lagostomus maximusViscacha (+) 9.0x[100]
CtenodactylidaeCtenodactylus spp.Gundi 5.0x[100]
 Ctenodactylus valiGundi 5.0f[89]
 Pectinator spekeiSpeke’s pectinator 4.0f[89]
 Pectinator spekeiSpeke’s gundi 10.0x[192]
CtenomyidaeCtenomys talarumTuco-tuco3.0 x[329]
 Ctenomys spp.Tuco-tuco3.0 x[100]
DasyproctidaeAgouti pacaPaca (+) 16.0x[43] [229]
 Dasyprocta leporinaAgouti 17.8x[143]
 Dasyprocta punctataCentral American agouti (+)10.0 x[100]
 Myoprocta spp.Acouchi 10.2x[143]
 Myoprocta acouchyAcouchi (+) 10.0x[100]
DinomyidaeDinomys branickiiPacarana 9.4x[143]
 Dinomys branickiiPacarana (+) 9.0x[100]
DipodidaeAllactaga euphraticaFour- and five-toed jerboa 4.2x[143]
EchimyidaeKannabateomys amblyonyxRato de Taquara 1.6x[143]
 Makalata armata  3.1x[143]
 Proechimys guyannensisSpiny rat1.73.5x[66]
 Proechimys semispinosusSpiny rat2.04.8x[143]
ErethizontidaeCoendou prehensilisPrehensile-tailed porcupine 17.3x[143]
 Coendou prehensilisPrehensile-tailed porcupine (+)17.09.0x[100]
 Erethizon dorsatumN. American porcupine18.0 x[56]
 Erethizon dorsatumN. American porcupine17.0 x[100] [192]
GeomyidaeCratogeomys castanopsMexican pocket gopher2.6 m[298]
 Cratogeomys castanopsMexican pocket gopher4.7 f[298]
 Geomys bursariusEastern pocket gopher 7.2x[143]
 Geomys spp.Eastern pocket gopher4.07.0x[100]
 Pappogeomys spp.Yellow and cinnamon pocket gopher1.1 f[100]
 Pappogeomys spp.Yellow and cinnamon pocket gopher0.6 m[100]
 Thomomys sppWestern pocket gopher5.0 x[100]
 Thomomys spp.Western pocket gopher4.0 x[229]
 Thomomys talpoidesPocket gopher1.6 x[21]
GliridaeDryomys nitedulaForest dormouse (+)4.0 x[100]
 Eliomys quercinusGarden dormouse 5.5x[143]
 Glis glisEdible dormouse9.0 x[100]
 Glis glisFat dormouse 8.7x[229]
 Graphiurus murinusAfrican dormouse 5.8x[143]
 Muscardinus avellanariusCommon dormouse4.06.0x[45] [100]
HeteromyidaeChaetodipus fallaxCoarse-haired pocket mouse 8.3x[143]
 Dipodomys ordiiKangaroo rat 9.8x[299]
 Dipodomys spp.Kangaroo rat9.8 x[100]
 Liomys adspersusSpiny pocket mouse (+)1.5 x[74] [75]
 Liomys spp.Spiny pocket mouse1.5 x[100]
 Microdipodops megacephalusKangaroo mouse 5.4x[60]
 Perognathus formosusHibernating pocket mouse5.0 x[192]
 Perognathus longimembrisSilky pocket mouse 8.3x[113]
 Perognathus spp.Pocket mouse8.0 x[100]
HydrochaeridaeHydrochaerus hydrochaerisCapybara 12.0x[101]
 Hydrochaerus hydrochaerisCapybara10.0 x[192]
 Hydrochaerus hydrochaerisCapybara12.0 x[21]
 Hydrochaerus hydrochaerisCapybara10.0 x[100]
HystricidaeAtherurus africanusBrush-tailed porcupine 22.9x[100] [299]
 Hystrix brachyuraOld World porcupine 27.3x[143]
 Hystrix pumilaOld World porcupine 9.5x[143]
 Hystrix spp.Porcupine (+)20.015.0x[100]
 Thecurus (= Hystrix) pumilisIndonesian porcupine 9.5x[100]
 Trichys fasciculataLong-tailed porcupine 10.1x[100] [299]
MuridaeAcomys cahirinusSpiny mouse 5.0x[101] [106]
[158] [267]
 Acomys spp.Spiny mouse 4.0x[100]
 Apodemus agrariusStriped field mouse 4.0x[100]
 Apodemus flavicollisYellow-necked mouse 4.0x[100]
 Apodemus sylvaticusWood mouse 4.0x[100]
 Apodemus sylvaticusOld World wood and field mouse1.04.4x[143]
 Arvicanthis spp.Unstriped grass mouse 7.0x[100]
 Arvicanthis spp.Unstriped grass mouse 6.7x[143]
 Arvicola richardsoniRichardson’s water vole1.5 x[100]
 Arvicola sapidusSouthwestern water vole2.53.5x[100]
 Arvicola terrestrisWater vole2.53.5x[100]
 Arvicola terrestrisWater vole 5.0x[45]
 Baiomys tayloriPygmy mouse 3.0x[143]
 Baiomys tayloriNorthern pygmy mouse 3.0x[100]
 Berylmys bowersiWhite-toothed rat 2.9x[207]
 Cannomys badiusLesser bamboo rat 3.3x[143]
 Cannomys spp.Bamboo rat 4.0x[100]
 Chiropodomys spp.Pencil-tailed tree mouse 4.0x[100]
 Chiropodomys spp.Pencil-tailed tree mouse2.03.6x[207] [222]
 Clethrionomys glareolusRed-backed mouse 4.9x[143]
 Colomys goslingiAfrican water rat 3.0x[100]
 Cricetomys spp.African giant pounched rat 7.8x[143]
 Cricetomys spp.African giant pouched rat (+) 7.0x[100]
 Cricetus cricetusCommon hamster4.0 x[100]
 Cricetus cricetusCommon hamster 2.0x[229]
 Delanymys brooksiDelany’s swamp mouse2.0 x[100]
 Dendromus spp.African climbing mouse 4.0x[100]
 Dendromus mesomelasAfrican climbing mouse 3.3x[143]
 Dicrostonyx torquatusArctic lemming 3.8x[100]
 Dicrostonyx spp.Collared lemming 3.3x[10]
 Eligmodontia typusHighland desert mouse 0.8x[238]
 Eothenomys smithiPere David’s vole 3.5x[6]
 Gerbillus pyramidumGreater Egyptian gerbil (+)8.0 x[21]
 Gerbillus pyramidumGreater Egyptian gerbil 8.2x[143]
 Grammomys dolichurus  4.4x[143]
 Hybomys spp.Back-striped mouse 4.0x[100]
 Lemmus lemmusNorway lemming 2.0x[100]
 Lemmus spp.True lemming 2.0x[10] [101]
[111]
 Lemniscomys striatusStriped grass mouse 2.5f[229]
 Lenothrix canusGray tree rat 3.8x[207]
 Leopoldamys spp.Long-tailed giant rat 2.0x[100] [207]
 Lophiomys imhausiCrested rat 7.5x[143]
 Lophiomys imhausiCrested rat 1.5x[100]
 Lophuromys spp.Brush-furred mouse 2.0x[159]
 Mastomys spp.Multimammate mouse 4.0x[100]
 Meriones crassusJird 5.6x[143]
 Meriones unguiculatusMongolian gerbil (+) 2.0x[100]
 Mesembriomys gouldiiTree rat 3.9x[143]
 Mesocricetus auratusGolden hamster10.0 x[21]
 Mesocricetus auratusGolden hamster3.0 x[100]
 Mesocricetus auratusGolden hamster 3.0x[229]
 Micromys minutusHarvest mouse 4.0x[100]
 Micromys minutusOld World harvest mouse1.55.0x[229]
 Microtus agrestisField vole1.63.3x[100]
 Microtus arvalisCommon vole 3.0x[100]
 Microtus guentheriVole 3.9x[143]
 Microtus oeconomusRoot vole1.41.8x[100]
 Microtus pinetorumPine vole 2.8x[100]
 Millardia gleadowiAsian soft-furred rat 4.0x[229]
 Millardia spp.Asian soft-furred rat 4.0x[100]
 Mus minutoidesMouse 3.1x[17] [28]
[191]
 Mus musculusHouse mouse6.0 x[21]
 Mus musculusMouse 6.0x[143]
 Myopus schisticolorWood lemming1.0 x[100]
 Mystromys albicaudatusWhite-tailed rat 6.0x[50]
 Mystromys albicaudatusWhite-tailed rat 6.0x[100]
 Nannospalax spp.Mediterranean blind mole-rat4.5 x[274]
 Neotoma albigulaWood rat 7.7x[143]
 Neotoma floridanaEastern woodrat3.0 x[100]
 Notomys alexisAustralian hopping mouse 5.2x[143]
 Notomys spp.Australian hopping mouse 6.0x[100]
 Nyctomys sumichrastiVesper rat 5.2x[143]
 Ochrotomys nuttalliGolden mouse 8.4f[229]
 Ondatra zibethicusMuskrat3.010.0x[229]
 Ondatra zibethicusMuskrat4.0 x[100]
 Onychomys leucogasterNorthern grasshopper mouse (+) 5.0x[100]
 Onychomys torridusGrasshopper mouse 4.6x[143]
 Oxymycterus rutilansBurrowing mouse 2.6x[143]
 Pachyuromys duprasiFat-tailed gerbil 4.4x[100]
 Pachyuromys duprasiFat-tailed gerbil 4.4x[143]
 Peromyscus maniculatusDeer mouse 8.3x[10]
 Phloeomys spp.Slender-tailed cloud rat 13.6x[276]
 Phodopus sungorusStriped hairy-footed hamster 3.2x[143]
 Phodopus sungorusStriped hairy-footed hamster (+) 3.0x[100]
 Pithecheir spp.Monkey-footed rat 3.0x[183]
 Platacanthomys lasiurusSpiny dormouse 1.7f[250]
 Pogonomys macrourusPrehensile-tailed rat 2.4x[143]
 Praomys tullbergiAfrican soft-furred rat 5.2x[143]
 Pseudomys spp.Australian native mouse 6.0x[100]
 Pseudomys australisAustralian native mouse 5.6x[143]
 Rattus rattusRat 4.2x[207]
 Reithrodon physodesConey rat 5.5x[143]
 Reithrodontomys spp.American harvest mouse1.5 x[73]
 Rhabdomys pumilioFour-striped grass mouse 2.9x[143]
 Rhizomys spp.Bamboo rat 4.0x[176]
 Rhizomys spp.Bamboo rat 4.0x[100]
 Rhombomys opimusGreat gerbil4.0 f[225] [263]
 Rhombomys opimusGreat gerbil3.0 m[225] [263]
 Saccostomus campestrisAfrican pouched rat 2.8x[143]
 Saccostomus spp.African pouched rat 3.0x[100]
 Sekeetamys calurusBushy-tailed jird 5.4x[100]
 Sekeetamys calurusBushy-tailed jird 5.4x[143]
 Sigmodon hispidusCotton rat 5.2x[143]
 Sundamys muelleriGiant sunda rat (+)0.52.0x[207]
 Synaptomys cooperiSouthern bog lemming (+) 2.5x[100]
 Synaptomys spp.Bog lemming 2.4f[184]
 Tachyoryctes spp.African mole-rat 3.1x[249]
 Tatera indicaIndian gerbil 7.0x[100]
 Tatera indicaLarge naked-soled gerbil 7.0x[143]
 Thallomys paedulcusAcacia rat 3.5x[143]
 Tylomys nudicaudusClimbing rat 5.4x[143]
MyocastoridaeMyocastor coypusNutria 10.0x[186]
 Myocastor coypusNutria (+)6.0 x[21]
 Myocastor coypusNutria 6.0x[100]
OctodontidaeOctodon degusDegus 7.1x[143]
 Octodontomys gliroidesBori (+) 7.0x[100]
 Octodontomys gliroidesChozchoz 7.3x[143]
 Spalacopus cyanusCoruro 5.8x[143]
 Spalacopus cyanusCoruro 6.0x[100]
PedetidaePedetes capensisSpringhare 13.8x[143]
SciuridaeAmmospermophilus leucurusAntelope ground squirrel 5.8x[143]
 Atlantoxerus getulusBarbary ground squirrel (+) 9.0x[100]
 Atlantoxerus getulusBarbary ground squirrel 5.6x[143]
 Callosciurus erythraeusBeautiful squirrel 16.1x[143]
 Callosciurus notatusPlantain squirrel 9.6x[100]
 Cynomys ludovicianusPrairie dog 8.5x[35] [100]
 Dremomys lokriahRed-cheeked squirrel 7.1x[143]
 Eutamias (= Tamias) ruficaudusWestern American chipmunk8.0 x[11]
 Funisciurus congicusAfrican striped squirrel 9.5x[143]
 Glaucomys sabrinusNorthern flying squirrel 13.0x[100]
 Glaucomys volansSouthern flying squirrel (+) 12.0x[100] [143]
 Heliosciurus rufobrachiumSun squirrel 8.9x[143]
 Marmota bobakBobak’s marmot15.0 x[100]
 Marmota marmotaAlpine marmot 18.0x[100]
 Marmota marmotaAlpine marmot15.0 x[229]
 Menetes berdmoreiBerdmore’s palm squirrel 4.3x[143]
 Petaurista petauristaGiant flying squirrel 16.0x[100]
 Protoxerus stangeriOil palm squirrel 5.1x[143]
 Pteromys volansSiberian flying squirrel3.8 x[21]
 Sciurus carolinensisEastern gray squirrel23.5 x[21]
 Sciurus carolinensisEastern gray squirrel (+)23.612.0x[100]
 Sciurus carolinensisEastern gray squirrel12.523.5x[143]
 Sciurus vulgarisEurasian red squirrel12.0 x[100]
 Spermophilus spp.Ground squirrel (+)11.0 f[286]
 Tamias striatusEastern American chipmunk3.08.0x[92] [100]
 Tamiasciurus spp.Red squirrel7.010.0x[10] [100]
[272]
 Trogopterus xanthipesComplex-toothed flying squirrel 12.0x[325]
 Xerus erythropusWestern ground squirrel 6.0x[100]
 Xerus inaurisAfrican ground squirrel (+) 6.0x[229]
SpalacidaeSpalax spp.Blind mole-rat (+) 4.0x[100]
ThryonomyidaeThryonomys swinderianusCane rat4.3 x[21]
 Thryonomys swinderianusCane rat 4.3x[143]
ZapodidaeNapaeozapus insignisWoodland jumping mouse4.0 x[229]
 Sicista betulinaNorthern birch mouse3.5 x[100]
 Sicista spp.Birch mouse3.3 x[130]
 Zapus hudsoniusJumping mouse 5.0x[143]
 
Scandentia
TupaiidaePtilocercus lowiiPen-tailed tree shrew 2.7x[176]
 Tupaia glisTree shrew 12.4x[143]
 Urogale everettiPhilippine tree shrew 11.5x[143]
 
Sirenia
DugongidaeDugong dugonDugong (+)55.0 x[192]
 Dugong dugonDugong70.010.0x[128] [227]
 Dugong dugonDugong55.0 x[100]
TrichechidaeTrichechus inunguisAmazonian manatee 12.5x[127]
 Trichechus inunguisAmazonian manatee (+)30.0 x[192]
 Trichechus manatusCaribbean manatee30.0 x[21]
 Trichechus manatusCaribbean manatee (+) 30.0x[143]
 Trichechus manatusCaribbean manatee 28.0x[192]
 
Tubulidentata
OrycteropodidaeOrycteropus aferAardvark23.0 x[21]
 Orycteropus aferAardvark 23.0x[100]
 Orycteropus aferAardvark 10.0x[192]
 Orycteropus aferAardvark 24.0m[289]
 Orycteropus aferAardvark 18.0f[289]
 
Xenarthra (= Edentata)
BradypodidaeBradypus torquatusManed sloth12.0 x[100]
DasypodidaeCalyptophraetus (= Chlamyphorus) retusesBurmeister’s armadillo12.0 x[21]
 Chaetophractus villosusLarger hairy armadillo 19.0x[100]
 Chaetophractus villosusHairy armadillo (+) 20.0x[229]
 Dasypus novemcinctusCommon long-nosed armadillo15.0 x[100] [334]
 Euphractus sexcinctusSix-banded armadillo 18.8x[143]
 Priodontes maximusGiant armadillo (+) 4.0x[100]
 Priodontes maximusGiant armadillo15.0 x[208]
 Tolypeutes spp.Three-banded armadillo15.0 x[208]
 Zaedyus pichiyPichi 9.0x[143]
MegalonychidaeCholoepus didactylusLinne’s two-toed sloth (+) 27.8x[143]
 Choloepus hoffmanniHoffmann’s two-toed sloth (+) 32.1x[143]
MyrmecophagidaeCyclopes didactylusSilky anteater 2.3x[208]
 Myrmecophaga tridactylaGiant anteater 26.0x[100] [192]
 Myrmecophaga tridactylaGiant anteater 25.8x[143]
 Tamandua tetradactylaSouthern tamandua (+) 9.0x[100]
 Tamandua mexicanaNorthern tamandua 9.5x[192]
 Tamandua spp.Tamandua 9.5x[143]

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