Common Bird Nematode/Protozoa Infections

  • Ascaridia spp. (large roundworm of birds)
    • Nematode
    • From earthworms, eggs in avian feces or in contaminated water
    • Size varies by species, females 20-120 mm, males 16-76 mm
    • Small intestine
    • Most serious in birds 1-3 months old
    • Heavy infestations can cause partial or complete obstruction of the intestinal lumen resulting in reduced gastrointestinal motility or stasis; weight loss, regurgitation, or decreased fecal production.
    • Fenbendazole (Panacur, Safeguard – Hoechst Roussel and many other products)
  • Heterakis gallinarum (small roundworm, cecal worm)
    • Nematode
    • From earthworms, eggs in avian feces or in contaminated water
    • Size varies by species, small, males 7-13 mm, females 10-15 mm
    • Intestines, then ceca
    • Heavy infestations can cause partial or complete obstruction of the intestinal lumen resulting in reduced gastrointestinal motility or stasis; weight loss, regurgitation, or decreased fecal production.
    • Fenbendazole (Panacur, Safeguard – Hoechst Roussel and many other products)
  • Strongyloides avium (threadworms)
    • Nematode
    • eggs in avian feces
    • females 2-9 mm long
    • Small intestine and ceca
    • Heavy infestations can cause partial or complete obstruction of the intestinal lumen resulting in reduced gastrointestinal motility or stasis; weight loss, regurgitation, or decreased fecal production.
    • Fenbendazole (Panacur, Safeguard – Hoechst Roussel and many other products)
  • Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)
    • Nematode
    • Earthworms, snails, slugs, flies, feces
    • Size varies by species, small, males 7-13 mm, females 10-15 mm
    • Trachea
    • Occaisional sneezing, weight loss, refusal to eat, shaking head frequently, pneumonia, stretching neck to accomodate open-mouthed gaping, asphyxiation.
    • Fenbendazole (Panacur, Safeguard – Hoechst Roussel and many other products)
  • Capillaria spp. (capillarids)
    • Nematode
    • Possibly earthworms, or eggs from feces
    • thin, filamentous, of uniform diameter; those found in the intestine 6-25 mm and those in the esophagus and crop 12-80 mm
    • esophagus, crop, small intestine, ceca
    • Heavy infestations can cause partial or complete obstruction of the intestinal lumen resulting in reduced gastrointestinal motility or stasis; weight loss, regurgitation, or decreased fecal production.
    • Pyrantel tartrate, 75 mg/kg Fenbendazole, 8 mg/kg for 6 days
  • Trichomonas gallinae
    • Protozoa
    • Trichomoniasis
    • Crop milk, parental feeding and droppings
    • thin, filamentous, of uniform diameter; those found in the intestine 6-25 mm and those in the esophagus and crop 12-80 mm
    • crop, esophagus
    • yellowish-white plaques in the oral cavity, esophagus and crop, accumulation of cheesy material that may block the esophagus and trachea. Crop stasis, poor growth and high mortality in young birds which are often infected through parental feedings. Emaciation, dyspnea and vomiting are common signs in adult birds who are usually infected by contaminated food and water.
    • metronidazole 60 mg/kg
  • Eimeria tenella (coccidia)
    • Protozoa
    • ceca
    • Blood tinged watery droppings, weight loss, chilled/fluffed, dehydration, emaciation
    • Sulfadimethoxine (Albon, Bactrovet, Tribrissen)
    REFERENCES:
    1Parasitology.org
    2
    http://www.aav.org/wormsgutstasis.htm
    3http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/agdex/600/663-34.html

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